File Name: interaction de ign beyond human computer interaction 3rd edition.zip
Share this page:. People Saleema Amershi Principal Researcher. Sean Andrist Senior Researcher.
Virtual worlds became an appealing and fascinating component of today's internet. In particular, the number of educational providers that see a potential for E-Learning in such new platforms increases.
Unfortunately, most of the environments and processes implemented up to now do not exceed a virtual modelling of real-world scenarios. In particular, this paper shows that Second Life can be more than just another learning platform. A flexible and bidirectional link between the reality and the virtual world enables synchronous and seamless interaction between users and devices across both worlds. The primary advantages of this interconnection are a spatial extension of face-to-face and online learning scenarios and a closer relationship between virtual learners and the real world.
Interactivity is closely related to aspects of networking and interdisciplinary development, bringing together researchers from engineering, computer science, media art and design, and social sciences. Here, the importance of computer science needs to be emphasized along with the growing immersion of digital systems in our daily life: dealing with computers can be seen as a new cultural technique besides reading, writing, and calculating [ 1 , 2 ].
There is a strong mutual penetration of the digital and physical world, leading to phenomena like virtual reality computers mirroring the real world or augmented reality real-world objects enriched with digital information.
For several years, virtual 3D worlds gained significant public attention. The most recent and most famous of these worlds is Second Life, but several text- or graphic-based environments in the web existed before. As first euphoria and commercial initiatives calm down [ 3 ], the scientific interest in media and information theory is raising e. In this way, there is a significant change in that virtual items with an artificial, digital environment become more and more reality [ 8 ].
This opens a new perspective to the pervasiveness of human-computer interfaces: It does not matter where, how, and what type of interface the user is interacting with; his intuitive movement input like turning around, entering an area, or touching the screen is immediately followed by a reaction output like showing a text or an image, playing an audio or video stream. The media architecture connects people, space, and data by interleaving physical and virtual reality creating an extended sphere of inter action.
This relates to the theory of cognition where receiving, processing, and transmission of information are understood as a sensuous, somatic experience [ 9 ]. From this point of view, the tangibility of an object is not restricted to physical environments but extends into virtual worlds—provided that these offer users the possibilities to inter act like in real life. This contrasts strongly to the common vision of tangible user interfaces [ 10 ] as graspable instantiation of graphical user interfaces.
But, at a closer look it is the implementation of the same concept: to transparently couple bits and atoms in order to let the users interact with a computer in the same way they do with the real world.
Considering this, a systematic combination of real life and virtual interaction is promising a huge benefit for electronic learning, in terms of not only virtually tangible E-learning interfaces that enrich the experiences of learners—and probably also those of teachers.
By a felt-as-somatic interaction with the learning environment the cognitive capabilities of students can be exhausted to a much larger extent than in traditional classroom settings, where learners are typically acting in a much more passive and less individual way. In the following, this paper demonstrates how the tangibility of real-life objects can be closely interweaved with elements in a virtual 3D world.
The many technical facets of our architectural framework are outside the focus of this paper, like service mash-ups [ 11 ], context awareness [ 12 ], and streaming media [ 13 ]. We will rather concentrate on integrating real-life settings and the virtual world Second Life. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to explain the benefits of this approach for education.
We are going to describe how the virtual and real-life environment fit into the general concept, which possibilities for interaction they offer to the users, how they can be interconnected, how we designed the 3D user interface, and finally which use cases become possible. Thus, the paper combines several perspectives from computer science, social sciences, and media design in an interdisciplinary approach. We believe that the direct interconnection of different educational settings allows for a seamless combination of synchronous scenarios during the lecture with interaction between teachers and learners and asynchronous scenarios before and after individual or collaborative preparation and wrap-up —regardless of the used platform.
This enhances the learning comfort, increases the scope and quality of a lecture, and advances mobility and equality of opportunities for learners and lecturers. Current developments in this area can be divided into two groups: point-to-point connections and systematic redesigns. There exist a number of dedicated point-to-point connections between different platforms and tools.
These solutions strongly rely on the used tools and techniques i. Also, there is no general approach behind these point-to-point connections. All these solutions suffer from limited extensibility and complex maintenance due to their dependence from tools and technologies.
Systematic integrations of different platforms are rare, no matter if designed for education or for other purposes. Usually, these solutions follow an approach of fundamental platform decomposition for a later flexible recombination of modules. Here, object-, service-, or peer-to-peer-based architectures come into play.
However, this is hard to realize with existing tools and infrastructures. Considering state-of-the-art design principles and sustainability of developments, a systematic integration is desirable.
Services have proven to be a valid mechanism for enhancement of existing platforms [ 22 ], if applied in a coarse-grained manner. Distributed application scenarios consist of a high number of tools, platforms, and infrastructures. Especially, network-based environments are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and dynamics, which requires a systematic approach for conception and implementation of a well-suited architectural model.
Otherwise, performance, scalability, and long-term sustainability cannot be guaranteed. Recent developments often show an unstructured aggregation of dedicated point-to-point connection between specific systems—though the theory of distributed systems offers a pool of general models for different requirements and conditions of the application scenario [ 23 ].
The pros and cons of these models affect issues like required knowledge on communication partners, existence of bottle necks, or completeness and timeliness of responses. Selection of an appropriate model comes along with a systematic analysis of the application scenario, usually with the help of formal models for actors, use cases, components, and processes.
Depending on the nature of the application, this can be achieved, for instance, with graphical modelling techniques [ 24 ] as well as using algebraic structures [ 25 ]. Besides computer scientists, this involves several representatives of the application scenario in system development, and thus reduces the risk of technically driven aberrations.
Especially, the broker model—as the concept behind the service oriented architecture SOA —requires substantial process modelling by domain experts, complementary change management from a social and organizational point of view, and a so-called SOA governance by the upper management level [ 26 ].
We chose the broker model for systematic interconnection of different interaction spaces mainly because of its high degree of heterogeneity, agility, scalability, and transparency. Therewith, we dynamically redirect interactions between different locations represented as media and control services without predefined knowledge on any site. Figure 1 shows this scenario using the example of telelecturing. Communication between involved parties basically takes place in three steps.
Thus, existing infrastructures and tools do not need to be redesigned. In an educational application scenario, there are some additional points that allow or even require the use of SOA. First of all, there are a number of established network addresses that are known to all clients and servers like learning platforms ; they can be used as brokers.
Moreover, the content of a lecture typically is not security relevant, which simplifies the implementation and practical use of a prototype. Nevertheless, a cross-institutional scenario requires basic services for authentication and accounting. Another aspect is the large number of potential users and services that demands a scalability and agility impossibly provided by conventional models like point-to-point connection of clients and servers. Finally, a strong requirement in educational scenarios is the acceptance and effective learning outcome by the users, not only those with a less technical background, which requires an intuitive and satisfying client-side interface.
Here, the bow is drawn back to the desired tangibility and somatic, sensual perception of rich interaction spheres, which we tried to transfer from physical to virtual environments.
Beyond simple brokerage, our service-based middleware offers some unique features which we would like to point out here. This was necessary because of the increasing number of service technologies. That is why we called this central instance not only a broker, but a University Service Bus—indicating that there are complex functions performed by the middleware on behalf of the other system components and finally of the users themselves.
This includes to move around e. Typical possibilities are presentation of any content like presenting a poster or giving a talk and creation or modification of certain elements e. In general, the degree of intensity is rising from level to level. As a specialty of virtual 3D worlds, navigation, and interaction are similar to our actions in reality and thus are perceived to be more simple, natural, and intensive [ 5 ] than traditional computer-based interaction patterns.
As a consequence, a particular suitability of virtual 3D worlds for teaching and learning can be seen. As far as we know, existing scenarios are restricted to a single virtual world up to now.
In principle, a connection to other environments virtual or physical is possible, too. We built an infrastructure that fulfills all of the above-mentioned tasks.
Primarily, ongoing face-to-face lectures are provided as a service and can thus be invoked by any platform in real-time. Also, additional sounds can be mapped to the virtual lecture hall. Secondarily, all lectures are recorded and stored in an archive. In case that there is no ongoing live event, these recordings can be accessed from Second Life, too. For the users, there is no difference to be seen between this asynchronous playback and a live transmission except missing features for interaction.
These interactions are the third field of our developments. We support a transparent, personal communication between users in the virtual world and onsite.
Again, all these features are not limited to a special lab on the campus or to Second Life as virtual counterpart. The only prerequisition is a registration of the event at the broker, carried out by the lecturer prior to the presentation. The added value a virtual world provides in contrast to conventional face-to-face teaching is not only to copy a classroom or lab setting and to broadcast a lecture in the Web.
Of course, this scenario is important especially for inexperienced users—teachers as well as students—in order to orientate themselves.
The advantage is the almost unlimited changeability of the environment. From an educational point of view, this prevents the teacher from circumstantially explaining unknown situations e.
From a psychological point of view, this requires the users to deal with a potentially instable environment. Moreover, the efforts for the teacher shall not be underestimated. Providing well-known, unchangeable conditions and locations like a virtual lecture hall with a connection to real-life settings as a framework to embed and to experience alternating scenarios may help them to cope with this demand.
Another important point is communication. The platform offers possibilities to get in contact with a huge number of individuals in an informal way. In contrast to traditional learning platforms with email, forums, chats, whiteboards, and so on , the 3D modelling of objects, persons, and their behaviour creates a kind of social presence.
The apparent visibility and tangibility of objects and persons makes it easier for users to inter act in an unconstrained and natural way. Nevertheless, interaction always requires a counterpart, which in turn requires a given organizational structure like lecture or consultation hours to tackle the problem of lonely avatars in an almost unlimited space. We focus the combination of presentation and communication processes known from a classroom or lab with those in virtual worlds here, Second Life.
This implies a close correlation between appearance and behaviour of persons as well as objects in both environments. Tutor and students can individually choose to join the combined scenario either from the face-to-face or the virtual setting.
Download human computer interaction by alan dix 3rd edition solution manual on rethinvevo. The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books The area of Human Computer Interaction HCI has acquired great importance in the last decade, its main objective is to increase the quality of interaction between the user and inspider. December — hcilab. Alan Dix has 15 books on Goodreads with ratings. Books by Alan Dix.
addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Third Avenue, New Our book is called Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction The rest of the book covers the art and some of the science of interaction de- ed for supporting conversations at a distance was the videophone.
It is not often that a comedian gives an astrophysicist goose bumps when discussing the laws of physics. But comic Chuck Nice managed to do just that in a recent episode of the podcast StarTalk. If so, the simulation would most likely create perceptions of reality on demand rather than simulate all of reality all the time—much like a video game optimized to render only the parts of a scene visible to a player.
A socio-technical system STS is a social system operating on a technical base, e. Hundreds of millions of people use them every day, but how do they work? More importantly, can they be designed?
The plot follows three androids : Kara Valorie Curry , who escapes her owner to explore her newfound sentience and protect a young girl; Connor Bryan Dechart , whose job is to hunt down sentient androids; and Markus Jesse Williams , who devotes himself to releasing other androids from servitude. To research the setting, the developers visited Detroit, Michigan. Writer and director David Cage completed the script in over two years. An engine was built to complement the game and hundreds of actors were cast before shooting and animation. Detroit: Become Human was met with generally favourable reviews from critics, who praised the setting, visuals, story, main characters, their voice actors, the impact choices had on the narrative, and flowchart feature, but criticised the motion controls, mishandling of historical and thematic allegories, and aspects of the plot and characters.
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Ведь если внести в код ряд изменений, Цифровая крепость будет работать на нас, а не против. Ничего более абсурдного Сьюзан слышать еще не доводилось. Цифровая крепость - не поддающийся взлому код, он погубит агентство. - Если бы я сумел слегка модифицировать этот код, - продолжал Стратмор, - до его выхода в свет… - Он посмотрел на нее с хитрой улыбкой. Сьюзан потребовалось всего мгновение. Стратмор сразу заметил изумление, мелькнувшее в ее глазах, и взволнованно изложил свой план: - Если бы я получил ключ, то смог бы взломать наш экземпляр Цифровой крепости и внести нужные изменения… - Черный ход, - сказала Сьюзан, мгновенно забыв о том, что Стратмор ей лгал.
Today , people interact with technology through ever more intelligent interfaces, moving from traditional keyboards to touchscreens, voice commands, and beyond.Smarreroti1970 28.07.2021 at 21:59
Virtual worlds became an appealing and fascinating component of today's internet.Rachel T. 29.07.2021 at 19:57
The systematic study of human-computer interaction has arguably been the most significant factor driving the exponential increase in technology acceptance, diffusion, and utilization, over the past two decades, as well as the technology-driven productivity gains that have benefited a full spectrum of organizations.