File Name: transmission and distribution of electrical energy .zip
Transmission and distribution refers to the different stages of carrying electricity over poles and wires from generators to a home or a business. The primary distinction between the two is the voltage level at which electricity moves in each stage.
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Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant , to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery , known as the " power grid " in North America , or just "the grid".
Efficient transmission involves reducing the currents by stepping up the voltage prior to transmission, and stepping it down at a substation at the far end. For AC power transmission the stepping up and down is done using transformers. A wide area synchronous grid , also known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects many generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to many consumers.
In Europe one large grid connects most of continental Europe. Historically, transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company, but starting in the s, many countries have liberalized the regulation of the electricity market in ways that have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from the distribution business.
Most transmission lines are high-voltage three-phase alternating current AC , although single phase AC is sometimes used in railway electrification systems. High-voltage direct-current HVDC technology is used for greater efficiency over very long distances typically hundreds of miles.
HVDC links are used to stabilize large power distribution networks where sudden new loads, or blackouts, in one part of a network can result in synchronization problems and cascading failures. Power is usually transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a significantly higher installation cost and greater operational limitations, but reduced maintenance costs.
Underground transmission is sometimes used in urban areas or environmentally sensitive locations. A lack of electrical energy storage facilities in transmission systems leads to a key limitation. Electrical energy must be generated at the same rate at which it is consumed. A sophisticated control system is required to ensure that the power generation very closely matches the demand.
If the demand for power exceeds supply, the imbalance can cause generation plant s and transmission equipment to automatically disconnect or shut down to prevent damage. In the worst case, this may lead to a cascading series of shut downs and a major regional blackout. Examples include the US Northeast blackouts of , , , and major blackouts in other US regions in and Electric transmission networks are interconnected into regional, national, and even continent wide networks to reduce the risk of such a failure by providing multiple redundant , alternative routes for power to flow should such shut downs occur.
Transmission companies determine the maximum reliable capacity of each line ordinarily less than its physical or thermal limit to ensure that spare capacity is available in the event of a failure in another part of the network.
High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation. The conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands. Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission, but aluminum is lighter, yields only marginally reduced performance and costs much less.
Overhead conductors are a commodity supplied by several companies worldwide. Improved conductor material and shapes are regularly used to allow increased capacity and modernize transmission circuits. For large conductors more than a few centimetres in diameter at power frequency, much of the current flow is concentrated near the surface due to the skin effect. The center part of the conductor carries little current, but contributes weight and cost to the conductor.
Because of this current limitation, multiple parallel cables called bundle conductors are used when higher capacity is needed. Bundle conductors are also used at high voltages to reduce energy loss caused by corona discharge.
Since overhead transmission wires depend on air for insulation, the design of these lines requires minimum clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions, such as high winds and low temperatures, can lead to power outages.
Electric power can also be transmitted by underground power cables instead of overhead power lines. Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, and are less affected by bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and excavation are much higher than overhead construction. Faults in buried transmission lines take longer to locate and repair. In some metropolitan areas, underground transmission cables are enclosed by metal pipe and insulated with dielectric fluid usually an oil that is either static or circulated via pumps.
If an electric fault damages the pipe and produces a dielectric leak into the surrounding soil, liquid nitrogen trucks are mobilized to freeze portions of the pipe to enable the draining and repair of the damaged pipe location. This type of underground transmission cable can prolong the repair period and increase repair costs. The temperature of the pipe and soil are usually monitored constantly throughout the repair period.
Underground lines are strictly limited by their thermal capacity, which permits less overload or re-rating than overhead lines. Long underground AC cables have significant capacitance , which may reduce their ability to provide useful power to loads beyond 50 miles 80 kilometres. DC cables are not limited in length by their capacitance, however, they do require HVDC converter stations at both ends of the line to convert from DC to AC before being interconnected with the transmission network.
In the early days of commercial electric power, transmission of electric power at the same voltage as used by lighting and mechanical loads restricted the distance between generating plant and consumers. In , generation was with direct current DC , which could not easily be increased in voltage for long-distance transmission.
Due to this specialization of lines and because transmission was inefficient for low-voltage high-current circuits, generators needed to be near their loads. It seemed, at the time, that the industry would develop into what is now known as a distributed generation system with large numbers of small generators located near their loads.
The transmission of electric power with alternating current AC became possible after Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs built what they called the secondary generator, an early transformer provided with turn ratio and open magnetic circuit, in The first long distance AC line was 34 kilometres 21 miles long, built for the International Exhibition of Turin, Italy.
The system proved the feasibility of AC electric power transmission on long distances. The very first AC system to operate was in service in in via dei Cerchi, Rome, Italy , for public lighting. A few months later it was followed by the first British AC system, which was put into service at the Grosvenor Gallery , London.
It also featured Siemens alternators and 2. Working from what he considered an impractical Gaulard-Gibbs design, electrical engineer William Stanley, Jr.
These were induction motors running on polyphase current, independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla with Tesla's design being licensed by Westinghouse in the US. This design was further developed into the modern practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown. The late s and early s would see the financial merger of smaller electric companies into a few larger corporations such as Ganz and AEG in Europe and General Electric and Westinghouse Electric in the US.
These companies continued to develop AC systems but the technical difference between direct and alternating current systems would follow a much longer technical merger. These included single phase AC systems, poly-phase AC systems, low voltage incandescent lighting, high voltage arc lighting, and existing DC motors in factories and street cars.
In what was becoming a universal system , these technological differences were temporarily being bridged via the development of rotary converters and motor-generators that would allow the large number of legacy systems to be connected to the AC grid. By , fifty-five transmission systems each operating at more than 70 kV were in service. The highest voltage then used was kV. The most efficient available plants could be used to supply the varying loads during the day.
Reliability was improved and capital investment cost was reduced, since stand-by generating capacity could be shared over many more customers and a wider geographic area. Remote and low-cost sources of energy, such as hydroelectric power or mine-mouth coal, could be exploited to lower energy production cost. The interconnection of local generation plants and small distribution networks was spurred by the requirements of World War I , with large electrical generating plants built by governments to provide power to munitions factories.
Later these generating plants were connected to supply civil loads through long-distance transmission. Engineers design transmission networks to transport the energy as efficiently as possible, while at the same time taking into account the economic factors, network safety and redundancy.
These networks use components such as power lines, cables, circuit breakers , switches and transformers. The transmission network is usually administered on a regional basis by an entity such as a regional transmission organization or transmission system operator. Transmission efficiency is greatly improved by devices that increase the voltage and thereby proportionately reduce the current , in the line conductors, thus allowing power to be transmitted with acceptable losses.
The reduced current flowing through the line reduces the heating losses in the conductors. According to Joule's Law , energy losses are directly proportional to the square of the current. Thus, reducing the current by a factor of two will lower the energy lost to conductor resistance by a factor of four for any given size of conductor. The optimum size of a conductor for a given voltage and current can be estimated by Kelvin's law for conductor size , which states that the size is at its optimum when the annual cost of energy wasted in the resistance is equal to the annual capital charges of providing the conductor.
At times of lower interest rates, Kelvin's law indicates that thicker wires are optimal; while, when metals are expensive, thinner conductors are indicated: however, power lines are designed for long-term use, so Kelvin's law has to be used in conjunction with long-term estimates of the price of copper and aluminum as well as interest rates for capital.
The increase in voltage is achieved in AC circuits by using a step-up transformer. HVDC systems require relatively costly conversion equipment which may be economically justified for particular projects such as submarine cables and longer distance high capacity point-to-point transmission.
HVDC is necessary for the import and export of energy between grid systems that are not synchronized with each other. A transmission grid is a network of power stations , transmission lines, and substations. Energy is usually transmitted within a grid with three-phase AC. Single-phase AC is used only for distribution to end users since it is not usable for large polyphase induction motors.
Higher order phase systems require more than three wires, but deliver little or no benefit. The price of electric power station capacity is high, and electric demand is variable, so it is often cheaper to import some portion of the needed power than to generate it locally.
Because loads are often regionally correlated hot weather in the Southwest portion of the US might cause many people to use air conditioners , electric power often comes from distant sources. Because of the economic benefits of load sharing between regions, wide area transmission grids now span countries and even continents.
The web of interconnections between power producers and consumers should enable power to flow, even if some links are inoperative. The unvarying or slowly varying over many hours portion of the electric demand is known as the base load and is generally served by large facilities which are more efficient due to economies of scale with fixed costs for fuel and operation.
Such facilities are nuclear, coal-fired or hydroelectric, while other energy sources such as concentrated solar thermal and geothermal power have the potential to provide base load power. Renewable energy sources, such as solar photovoltaics, wind, wave, and tidal, are, due to their intermittency, not considered as supplying "base load" but will still add power to the grid. The remaining or 'peak' power demand, is supplied by peaking power plants , which are typically smaller, faster-responding, and higher cost sources, such as combined cycle or combustion turbine plants fueled by natural gas.
Long-distance transmission allows remote renewable energy resources to be used to displace fossil fuel consumption. Hydro and wind sources cannot be moved closer to populous cities, and solar costs are lowest in remote areas where local power needs are minimal. Connection costs alone can determine whether any particular renewable alternative is economically sensible.
Costs can be prohibitive for transmission lines, but various proposals for massive infrastructure investment in high capacity, very long distance super grid transmission networks could be recovered with modest usage fees. At the power stations , the power is produced at a relatively low voltage between about 2. The
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant , to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery , known as the " power grid " in North America , or just "the grid". Efficient transmission involves reducing the currents by stepping up the voltage prior to transmission, and stepping it down at a substation at the far end. For AC power transmission the stepping up and down is done using transformers. A wide area synchronous grid , also known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects many generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to many consumers.
Sivanagaraju Author of Electric Power Transmission and Electrical Power Distribution and Automation by S. Sivanagaraju, V. Electric Power Distribution — by A. Pabla, Tata Mc Graw-hill Publishing company, 4th edition,
Electric & Magnetic Fields (EMF) – Invisible areas of energy, created. ▫ Transmission and Distribution –. Energy is _and_answers_english_pdf. Back to.
This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application. Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering should be weighing down the bookshelves of all engineers, manufacturers and contractors involved with transmission and distribution networks. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit.
Explore This Park. Renewable Energy. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution. Diagram of standard North American electric grid. Source: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [1.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Growing loads and aging equipment are stressing the system and increasing the risk of widespread blackouts. Modern society depends on reliable and economic delivery of electricity.
Premium Membership. Learn from experienced power engineers. The purpose of the electric transmission system is the interconnection of the electric energy producing power plants or generating stations with the loads. A three-phase AC system is used for most transmission lines. The operating frequency is 60 Hz in the U. Electrical energy, being a very convenient form of energy, has become fully pervasive in the modern world.
Structure of electric power system: generation, transmission and distribution; Types of All distribution of electrical energy is done by constant voltage system.
The U. Data for each state and for the entire United States are in Table Supply and Disposition of Electricity of each profile. To find the table, scroll down a Profile page to find the link under Table 1 for Full data tables Click on the link, and in the resulting screen see the link for an xls file. In the file, see the worksheet Source-Disposition, and in the worksheet, see the row for estimated losses in the table.
When people talk about the electric power industry, the focus of the conversation is usually on the power generation side of the business or on the utilities. The power generation side examines the extraction of fossil fuels, alternative energy generation, oil spills, carbon emissions, and nuclear power. The utilities side focuses on the customer-oriented delivery side of the business, from electricity bill surcharges to outages in our electricity supply. The initial stage in the process is converting power from a generation source coal, nuclear, wind, etc. This medium voltage electrical power can then be safely distributed to urban or populated areas. The final stage involves stepping the power down to useable voltage for the commercial or residential customer see Figure 1. Source: U.
There are three stages of electric power supply; generation, transmission and distribution. Each of these stages involves distinct production processes, work activities and hazards. Most electricity is generated at 13, to 24, volts. The hazards of the electrical power generation process include explosions and burns resulting from unexpected equipment failure. These procedures are in place to control energy sources. Before performing maintenance on equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the equipment must be isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
- Червь преодолел уже половину пути. - Забудьте про пленку, - сказал Бринкерхофф. - Вводите ключ и кончайте со всем. Джабба вздохнул. На сей раз голос его прозвучал с несвойственным ему спокойствием: - Директор, если мы введем неверный ключ… - Верно, - прервала его Сьюзан.
10 вечера, по местным понятиям еще день: порядочный испанец никогда не обедает до заката, а ленивое андалузское солнце редко покидает небо раньше десяти. Несмотря на то что вечер только начинался, было очень жарко, однако Беккер поймал себя на том, что идет через парк стремительным шагом. Голос Стратмора в телефонной трубке звучал еще настойчивее, чем утром. Новые инструкции не оставляли места сомнениям: необходимо во что бы то ни стало найти канадца.
На вид за шестьдесят, может быть, около семидесяти. Белоснежные волосы аккуратно зачесаны набок, в центре лба темно-красный рубец, тянущийся к правому глазу. Ничего себе маленькая шишка, - подумал Беккер, вспомнив слова лейтенанта. Посмотрел на пальцы старика - никакого золотого кольца. Тогда он дотронулся до его руки.
Сьюзан закрыла дверь и подошла ближе. Голоса заглушал шум генераторов. Казалось, говорившие находились этажом ниже.
ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION. SYSTEMS: COSTS AND THEIR ALLOCATION. by. Martin L. Baughman and Drew J. Bottaro. Energy.Linette L. 20.05.2021 at 08:33
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