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Metrics details. This study aims to evaluate the impact of internship programs on the professional as well as on personal development and skills of business students in Pakistan. The data of the study consisted of undergraduating business students of 4-year degree programs from 15 universities of Pakistan.
In the past, professional development focused on individual development, workshops, inservice and external delivery systems. In undertaking action research, educators begin by asking how current practice might be improved. Teachers often use their classrooms as research sites. For example, teachers might teach a concept in different ways to determine which had the greatest effect on student learning. Likewise, teachers might experiment to see what approach is most effective in facilitating cooperative learning among students.
Administrators can use action research to address issues related to their leadership role in schools. Action research is a reflective strategy that requires the collection of qualitative and quantative data, which can lead to enhanced practice.
Teachers can engage in successful mini-research projects in their classrooms, while administrators can use schools, individually or collectively, as research sites.
Action research helps teachers to theorize from teaching practice and experience and redefine teaching as an autonomous form of inquiry. Book study groups are an effective form of professional development that educators at all levels can use to facilitate their professional growth. Book studies work best if the participants have similar skills and interests. However, varying viewpoints are important because they inject diversity of opinion and enliven discussion.
One of the first matters on which the group must reach consensus is a schedule for reading and discussion. If the book study is to consist of four to eight meetings in all, then each meeting should last between 60 and 90 minutes.
Choose a book on a topic that interests everyone in the group but that is sufficiently open-ended to encourage new learning through reading and discussion. The book should be thought-provoking and have enough depth to stimulate debate. At the conclusion of the book study, ask the following questions: Did the book stimulate thought and discussion? Did the group study meet the learning objectives? How might the group study experience be improved?
Teachers visit the classrooms of colleagues to view innovative teaching practices and expand and refine their own personal pedagogy. For classroom visitations to occur, school boards must be willing to engage substitute teachers. School administrators may benefit from visiting a school in the jurisdiction or another jurisdiction to view the facility, explore alternatives for organizing resources and discuss leadership strategies with the hosting school administrator.
Collaborative curriculum development provides a unique opportunity for teachers to delve deeply into their subject matter. Working together, teachers can design new planning materials, teaching methods, resource materials and assessment tools.
Conference audio tapes provide teachers who are unable to attend a national or international conference with an opportunity to learn new ideas from experts. A detailed listing of selected conferences is located on the ATA online events calendar.
Curriculum maps are tools to organize teaching. They outline a sequence for delivering content and provide a clear scope for what must be taught to all students as specified in the provincial curriculum. Curriculum maps, which can be aligned both horizontally and vertically, organize content, skills, assessments, and resources over time.
A curriculum map can also serve as a tool for collecting data about the implemented curriculum in a school and in a district—the instruction that students are receiving. Educators use data to inform their professional practice, that is, to make decisions about what to teach, how to teach it and how to determine whether students have learned what was taught.
Data come from a variety of sources. Some data help determine the degree to which an individual student or a group of students has achieved specific standards as measured by teacher-made tests and assignments, norm-referenced tests, student portfolios, observation surveys and other sources. Other data provide insight into contextual factors such as language proficiency, preschool experience, attendance patterns and family support that may influence student achievement.
Still other data provide insight into structures, attitudes and practices that comprise the school program—factors such as curriculum organization, instructional strategies, assessment practices, report card, course completion rates and school satisfaction surveys. Reliable data are multi-sourced, relevant, timely and consistent. Student work provides teachers with a critical source of information about how a student is learning, developing, acquiring new knowledge and applying new skill sets.
Student work includes such items as writing samples, projects, oral reports and pictures. Thinking analytically about the work can give teachers greater insights into teaching and learning. The information can also be used in study groups.
Calendar year and short-term exchanges are offered in a number of countries. All costs of the program are borne by the participant but the benefits of an exchange are both personal and professional. More information. Focused conversation is a four-stage process that can help people reflect together about any issue, large or small. A facilitator leads the conversation and asks a series of questions that elicit responses that take the group from the surface of a topic to its in-depth implications.
Hosting a student teacher is a form of mentoring, except that the experienced teacher has an obligation to focus on supporting the development of standards related to interim certification. All Alberta universities provide a handbook and orientation workshops for host teachers that outline the expectations for field experiences. Host teachers are ultimately responsible for their students and therefore must closely supervise what the student teacher does with respect to lesson planning, classroom instruction and student evaluation.
Student teachers do not have teaching certificates and, therefore, should not, under any circumstances, be allowed to act as substitute teachers. The teacher organizes curriculum so that it cuts across subject-matter lines, bringing topics into meaningful association and allowing students to focus on broad areas of study. Integrated curriculum planning includes these features:.
The Internet provides access to a wealth of information on countless topics contributed by people throughout the world. On the Internet, a user has access to a wide variety of services: vast information sources, electronic mail, file transfer, group memberships based on interest, interactive collaboration and multimedia displays. However, Internet research has a number of limitations. Because the Internet is a self-publishing medium, anyone with minimal technical skills and access to a host computer can publish content.
Furthermore, Internet sites change over time according to the commitment and inclination of the creator. Some sites demonstrate an expert's knowledge, while others are amateur efforts. Some may be updated daily, while others may be outdated. Journalling is a technique for recording observations and reflections. The entries may be related to teaching, student growth, the implementation of a new initiative or any subject for which a teacher may want to develop a record.
The journal can provide a rich, qualitative record of events and activities. Lesson study is a professional development process that Japanese teachers engage in to systematically examine and improve their practice. In this process, teachers work collaboratively to plan, teach, observe and critique a small number of study lessons.
To provide focus and direction to this work, teachers select an overarching goal and related research question that they want to explore. This research question guides their work on all the study lessons.
Teachers then jointly draw up a detailed plan for the lesson that one of the teachers delivers to students in a real classroom. Other group members observe the lesson. The group then meets to discuss their observations. Often, the group revises the lesson, and another teacher delivers it in a second classroom, while group members again look on. The group then meets again to discuss the observed instruction.
Finally, the teachers produce a report of what their study lessons have taught them, particularly with respect to their research question. Leadership development programs are generally designed to provide teachers aspiring to school or district administration with an opportunity to learn about various aspects of the role and thus increase the pool of applicants for leadership positions.
Some programs may be recognized by universities for postgraduate credit and participants are encouraged to confirm these arrangements with the university in question.
Mentoring is a confidential process through which an experienced professional provides another with information, support, feedback and assistance for the purpose of refining present skills, developing new ones and enhancing problem solving and decision making in a way that promotes professional development.
They also need support systems that will help them see teaching as a collegial, rather than an isolated, endeavour. Mentors can provide the advice, suggestions and constructive feedback that can make the difference between whether a new teacher succeeds or fails. School administrators who are new to administration or new to the school district, veteran administrators in the first few years in the role, or vice-principals aspiring to become school administrators can find mentorship supportive and beneficial to the development of their leadership practice.
Mentorship is most beneficial when it is based on an action plan that includes goals and strategies. Mentoring is an effective process to support teachers whether they are new to the profession, new to a curriculum or grade level, or new to an administrative designation. Effective professional development initiatives use a variety of communication networks and strategies.
The vertical and horizontal boundaries at the school and system level must become interrelated and mutually supportive. A computer, a modem and access to a telephone line can link teachers to the electronic village. Open systems can connect teachers to existing online libraries, databases, list servers and other communication systems.
Participants can discuss such issues as evaluation and assessment, technology across the curriculum, environmental and global education, second language instruction, conflict resolution, school leadership and school-based research. Some organizations and postsecondary institutions have developed online courses, tutorials and self-guided programs for teacher professional development. Most programs have a registration fee. Teachers and school administrators solicit and receive feedback about their practices after being observed by a peer or other observer.
Observation and assessment encourage educators to reflect on their everyday professional lives and can take many forms. Reflective writing and discussion allow educators to develop ideas that can be integrated into their evolving personal pedagogy and professional practice.
Teachers interested in continuing their academic development can register for credit courses offered by postsecondary institutions. Some programs are offered using outreach or online strategies. The ATA library offers an excellent collection of professional books and journals available to members. The Association has purchased access for its members to three online periodical databases containing more than 3, titles.
Professional Development Schools are schools that collaborate with a university. The faculty and staff of the university work directly with field-based practitioners on problems and issues relevant to the everyday practices of teachers, schools and school systems. Universities play an active role in graduate education and professional certification.
Through their ongoing communication with teachers, principals, consultants and superintendents, faculty members help to identify trends and challenges. Field development projects are collaboratively formulated between school boards and university personnel and may involve a combination of the following activities: problem framing, planning, delivery of PD sessions, ongoing school support, board committee membership and project evaluation.
Some teachers and school administrators have used the portfolio development process to reflect on and improve their professional practice.
Personal development consists of activities that develop a person's capabilities and potential, build human capital , facilitate employability , and enhance quality of life and the realization of dreams and aspirations. It is not limited to self-help , but can involve formal and informal activities for developing others in roles such as those of teacher , guide , counselor , manager , coach , or mentor. When personal development takes place in the context of institutions , it refers to the methods, programs, tools, techniques, and assessment systems offered to support positive adult development at the individual level in organizations. Personal development can also include developing other people's skills and personality. This may take place through roles such as those of a teacher or mentor, either through a personal competency such as the alleged skill of certain managers in developing the potential of employees or through a professional service such as providing training, assessment or coaching.
PDF | Educators' Professional and Personal Growth: A Case Study of European The main problem is to determine which skills the teachers can papers in the Journal of Teacher Education and Training (e.g., fiogla,
When schools are looking to hire a teacher, there are a few basic requirements: a college degree, experience working with children, and, of course, patience. Likewise, as rapid developments in technology integrate into our day-to-day lives, they affect the way students learn and teachers teach. Modern teachers need to be competent in not only basic skills but new skill sets. In this modern, digital age, teachers need to be flexible and able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. Likewise, administrators are changing and updating expectations and learning standards.
In the past, professional development focused on individual development, workshops, inservice and external delivery systems.
All teachers should have a professional development plan and actively work on achieving the goals they have identified. By following the steps you have put in place, you should gain the experience and develop the skills required to do so. For example, your goal may be to become a head of department, or a member of pastoral care, and so you need to outline what you will do to gain this position in your plan. Example Professional Development Plan for Teachers. Professional Development Plan Template. Within your plan, you should outline what you wish to achieve and what you are going to do to develop your workplace skills and therefore reach your goals. All teachers should be actively working on their professional development.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The National Science Education Standards present a vision of learning and teaching science in which all students have the opportunity to become scientifically literate. In this vision, teachers of science are professionals responsible for their own professional development and for the maintenance of the teaching profession. The standards in this chapter provide criteria for making judgments about the quality of the professional development opportunities that teachers of science will need to implement the National Science Education Standards. Professional development for teachers should be analogous to professional development for other professionals. Becoming an effective science teacher is a continuous process that stretches from preservice experiences in undergraduate years to the end of a professional career.
Чатрукьян посмотрел на комнату Третьего узла - не следит ли за ним криптограф. - Какого черта, - промычал он себе под нос. Под его ногами была потайная дверь, почти неразличимая на полу. В руке он сжимал ключ, взятый из лаборатории систем безопасности. Чатрукьян опустился на колени, вставил ключ в едва заметную скважину и повернул. Внизу что-то щелкнуло. Затем он снял наружную защелку в форме бабочки, снова огляделся вокруг и потянул дверцу на .
Это было одной из ее многочисленных хитростей: мужчинам казалось, что она сгорает от страсти, поэтому они стремились прийти к ней снова и. Росио погладила руками свои пышные загорелые формы - дай Бог, чтобы они сохраняли свою привлекательность еще лет пять-шесть, пока она не накопит достаточно денег. Сеньор Ролдан забирал большую часть ее заработка себе, но без него ей пришлось бы присоединиться к бесчисленным шлюхам, что пытаются подцепить пьяных туристов в Триане. А у ее клиентов по крайней мере есть деньги. Они ее не бьют, им легко угодить. Росио натянула ночную рубашку, глубоко вздохнула и открыла дверь в комнату. Когда она вошла, глаза немца чуть не вывалились из орбит.
Его туфли кордовской кожи стучали по асфальту, но его обычная реакция теннисиста ему изменила: он чувствовал, что теряет равновесие. Мозг как бы не поспевал за ногами. Беккер в очередной раз послал бармену проклятие за коктейль, выбивший его из колеи. Это был один из старых потрепанных севильских автобусов, и первая передача включилась не. Расстояние между Беккером и ним сокращалось.
А что по этому поводу думает Энсей Танкадо. - Я ничем не обязан мистеру Танкадо.
Я не видела смысла впутывать моего спутника, да и самой впутываться в дела, связанные с полицией. Беккер рассеянно кивнул, стараясь осмыслить этот жестокий поворот судьбы. Она отдала это чертово кольцо. - Я пыталась помочь умирающему, - объясняла Росио. - Но сам он, похоже, этого не .
- Кроме всего прочего, вирус просто не может проникнуть в ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Душераздирающий крик, раздавшийся из вентиляционной шахты, все еще звучал в ее ушах. Вопреки отчаянным попыткам подавить охвативший ее страх Сьюзан явственно ощущала, что это чувство завладевает ею безраздельно. Она металась между дверцами кабинок и рукомойниками.
Internationally, considerable reform in science education is occurring which promotes constructivist philosophies and advocates constructivist-inspired pedagogical strategies that are new to many teachers.Georgette B. 17.05.2021 at 13:01
Education is a never-ending process.Kai H. 20.05.2021 at 13:14
Yet with the wide variety of professional development options available, which methods have the most impact on student learning?