File Name: advanced nuclear fuel cycles and radioactive waste management .zip
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Part I: Fundamentals of radioactive materials separations processes: chemistry, engineering and safeguards. Chapter 4: Spectroscopic on-line monitoring for process control and safeguarding of radiochemical streams in nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. Chapter 5: Safeguards technology for radioactive materials processing and nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities.
Most low-level radioactive waste LLW is typically sent to land-based disposal immediately following its packaging for long-term management. Storage of used fuel may be in ponds or dry casks, either at reactor sites or centrally. Beyond storage, many options have been investigated which seek to provide publicly acceptable, safe, and environmentally sound solutions to the final management of radioactive waste. The most widely favoured solution is deep geological disposal. The focus is on how and where to construct such facilities. Used fuel that is not intended for direct disposal may instead be reprocessed in order to recycle the uranium and plutonium it contains. Some separated liquid HLW arises during reprocessing; this is vitrified in glass and stored pending final disposal.
In the beginning of the 21st century, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear incident regenerated concern and speculation regarding nuclear power. However, the rapid expansion of population worldwide and the drive for economic development, in conjunction with the environmental issues aroused by the extensive use of fossil fuels, are globally leading to a constant growth of nuclear energy production. Nevertheless, the technological challenges in what is envisaged to grow into a global and publicly accepted industry for peaceful purposes are yet evident. Waste management and decommissioning are clearly the biggest challenge the nuclear industry is facing today. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles that are under development internationally are expected to deliver new standards in sustainability and safety, by exploiting an interdependent system of many candidate technologies, where both waste management and economic factors are considered. Most of the developments focus on maximizing resource base and minimizing high-level waste.
Both existing recycling processes and advanced fuel cycles generate high level radioactive waste, a by-product with characteristics similar to used nuclear fuel. Studies conducted around the world have concluded that these high-level radioactive wastes should also be contained and isolated in a deep geological repository. Countries which do reprocess used nuclear fuel and others that are examining advanced fuel cycles, all have plans to implement deep geological repositories. For information about those countries please see the watching briefs. The specific amount and type of used fuel to be placed in Canada's repository for long-term management will be agreed with the community using the best information available at the time, and through an open and transparent engagement process. This process will also involve surrounding communities and others who are interested and potentially affected. To help anticipate any changes in fuel cycles used in Canada, and the types of waste that may need to be managed, we keep a watching brief on new developments.
This study analyses a range of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on radioactive waste management policies. It presents various fuel cycle options which illustrate differences between alternative technologies, but does not purport to cover all foreseeable future fuel cycles. The analysis extends the work carried out in previous studies, assesses the fuel cycles as a whole, including all radioactive waste generated at each step of the cycles, and covers high-level waste repository performance for the different fuel cycles considered. The estimates of quantities and types of waste arising from advanced fuel cycles are based on best available data and experts' judgement. The effects of various advanced fuel cycles on the management of radioactive waste are assessed relative to current technologies and options, using tools such as repository performance analysis and cost studies. About us Topics News and resources Learning and tools. About us About us.
Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Radioactive Waste Management. ISBN: Adobe Acrobat PDF Document - on 8/9/
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. From the first introduction of nuclear power, the management of spent nuclear fuel, especially the highly radioactive components, has been a concern.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine will appoint an ad hoc committee of experts to evaluate and assess : 1 the merits and viability of different nuclear fuel cycles and technology options and 2 the waste aspects of advanced nuclear reactors that could be commercially deployed within the next 30 years. A consensus report will be produced to respond to each topic. The first report will:. The second report will:. The two consensus reports will provide findings and recommendations that may consider evidence-based policy options.
Electricity Policy and Economics. Other Issues Critical to Chinese Decisionmaking. Ultimately, most critical decisions have been made by the leadership of the Chinese state and the Communist Party of China.
A new generation of nuclear power reactors will change how spent nuclear fuel is managed. An emerging generation of reactor designs has reinvigorated the nuclear power sector.
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Сьюзан остановилась, собираясь с духом. Звук выстрела продолжал звучать у нее в голове. Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению. Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле.
Бедняга. Сердечный приступ. Беккер безучастно кивнул: - Так мне сказали. Лейтенант вздохнул и сочувственно помотал головой.
Панк наконец позволил себе улыбнуться. - Заметано. - Ну вот и хорошо.
Как вы думаете, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан задумалась. Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что .
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- Я добиваюсь своих целей, но честь для меня важнее. Я скорее предпочту умереть, чем жить в тени позора. А ждет его именно .
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The topics covered include environmental impacts, nuclear safety, and the economics of nuclear power production, but the major emphasis is on nonproliferation and security aspects.