File Name: culture contact and social change in nigeria .zip
Collective behavior and social movements are just two of the forces driving social change , which is the change in society created through social movements as well as external factors like environmental shifts or technological innovations. Essentially, any disruptive shift in the status quo, be it intentional or random, human-caused or natural, can lead to social change.
Below are some of the likely causes. Changes to technology, social institutions, population, and the environment, alone or in some combination, create change. We will focus on four agents of change that social scientists recognize: technology, social institutions, population, and the environment.
Some would say that improving technology has made our lives easier. Imagine what your day would be like without the Internet, the automobile, or electricity. In The World Is Flat , Thomas Friedman argues that technology is a driving force behind globalization, while the other forces of social change social institutions, population, environment play comparatively minor roles.
He suggests that we can view globalization as occurring in three distinct periods. First, globalization was driven by military expansion, powered by horsepower and wind power.
The countries best able to take advantage of these power sources expanded the most, and exert control over the politics of the globe from the late fifteenth century to around the year The second shorter period from approximately C. Steam and rail power were the guiding forces of social change and globalization in this period. Finally, Friedman brings us to the post-millennial era. In this period of globalization, change is driven by technology, particularly the Internet Friedman But also consider that technology can create change in the other three forces social scientists link to social change.
Advances in medical technology allow otherwise infertile women to bear children, which indirectly leads to an increase in population. Advances in agricultural technology have allowed us to genetically alter and patent food products, which changes our environment in innumerable ways.
From the way we educate children in the classroom to the way we grow the food we eat, technology has impacted all aspects of modern life. Of course there are drawbacks. The increasing gap between the technological haves and have-nots——sometimes called the digital divide——occurs both locally and globally. Further, there are added security risks: the loss of privacy, the risk of total system failure like the Y2K panic at the turn of the millennium , and the added vulnerability created by technological dependence.
Think about the technology that goes into keeping nuclear power plants running safely and securely. Millions of people today walk around with their heads tilted toward a small device held in their hands.
Perhaps you are reading this textbook on a phone or tablet. People in developed societies now take communication technology for granted. How has this technology affected social change in our society and others? One very positive way is crowdsourcing. Thanks to the web, digital crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.
Web-based companies such as Kickstarter have been created precisely for the purposes of raising large amounts of money in a short period of time, notably by sidestepping the traditional financing process. This book, or virtual book, is the product of a kind of crowdsourcing effort. It has been written and reviewed by several authors in a variety of fields to give you free access to a large amount of data produced at a low cost. The largest example of crowdsourced data is Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia which is the result of thousands of volunteers adding and correcting material.
Perhaps the most striking use of crowdsourcing is disaster relief. By tracking tweets and e-mails and organizing the data in order of urgency and quantity, relief agencies can address the most urgent calls for help, such as for medical aid, food, shelter, or rescue.
On January 12, a devastating earthquake hit the nation of Haiti. By January 25, a crisis map had been created from more than 2, incident reports, and more reports were added every day. The same technology was used to assist victims of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in The U. We generally think of this as cyberbullying.
A study by the U. Department of Education found that From the same sample 9 percent specifically reported having been a victim of cyberbullying Robers et al. Cyberbullying represents a powerful change in modern society. William F. That is, society may not fully comprehend all the consequences of a new technology and so may initially reject it such as stem cell research or embrace it, sometimes with unintended negative consequences such as pollution.
Cyberbullying is a special feature of the Internet. Unique to electronic aggression is that it can happen twenty-four hours a day, every day; it can reach a child or an adult even though she or he might otherwise feel safe in a locked house. The messages and images may be posted anonymously and to a very wide audience, and they might even be impossible to trace.
Finally, once posted, the texts and images are very hard to delete. Its effects range from the use of alcohol and drugs to lower self-esteem, health problems, and even suicide CDC, n. According to the Megan Meier Foundation web site a , Megan Meier had a lifelong struggle with weight, attention deficit disorder, and depression. But then a sixteen-year-old boy named Josh Evans asked Megan, who was thirteen years old, to be friends on the social networking web site MySpace.
The two began communicating online regularly, though they never met in person or spoke on the phone. Now Megan finally knew a boy who, she believed, really thought she was pretty. But things changed, according to the Megan Meier Foundation web site b. That night Megan hanged herself in her bedroom closet, three weeks before what would have been her fourteenth birthday. Each change in a single social institution leads to changes in all social institutions.
For example, the industrialization of society meant that there was no longer a need for large families to produce enough manual labor to run a farm. Further, new job opportunities were in close proximity to urban centers where living space was at a premium. The result is that the average family size shrunk significantly. This same shift toward industrial corporate entities also changed the way we view government involvement in the private sector, created the global economy, provided new political platforms, and even spurred new religions and new forms of religious worship like Scientology.
It has also informed the way we educate our children: originally schools were set up to accommodate an agricultural calendar so children could be home to work the fields in the summer, and even today, teaching models are largely based on preparing students for industrial jobs, despite that being an outdated need.
A shift in one area, such as industrialization, means an interconnected impact across social institutions. Population composition is changing at every level of society. Births increase in one nation and decrease in another. Some families delay childbirth while others start bringing children into their folds early. Population changes can be due to random external forces, like an epidemic, or shifts in other social institutions, as described above.
But regardless of why and how it happens, population trends have a tremendous interrelated impact on all other aspects of society. In the United States, we are experiencing an increase in our senior population as baby boomers begin to retire, which will in turn change the way many of our social institutions are organized. For example, there is an increased demand for housing in warmer climates, a massive shift in the need for elder care and assisted living facilities, and growing awareness of elder abuse.
There is concern about labor shortages as boomers retire, not to mention the knowledge gap as the most senior and accomplished leaders in different sectors start to leave.
Further, as this large generation leaves the workforce, the loss of tax income and pressure on pension and retirement plans means that the financial stability of the country is threatened.
Globally, often the countries with the highest fertility rates are least able to absorb and attend to the needs of a growing population. Family planning is a large step in ensuring that families are not burdened with more children than they can care for. Turning to human ecology, we know that individuals and the environment affect each other. As human populations move into more vulnerable areas, we see an increase in the number of people affected by natural disasters, and we see that human interaction with the environment increases the impact of those disasters.
Part of this is simply the numbers: the more people there are on the planet, the more likely it is that some will be affected by a natural disaster. But it goes beyond that.
Movements like The environment is best described as an ecosystem, one that exists as the interplay of multiple parts including 8. The growth of the human population, currently over seven billion and expected to rise to nine or ten billion by , perfectly correlates with the rising extinction rate of life on earth. The four key elements that affect social change that are described in this chapter are the environment, technology, social institutions, and population.
In , New Orleans was struck by a devastating hurricane. But it was not just the hurricane that was disastrous. It was the converging of all four of these elements, and the text below will connect the elements by putting the words in parentheses. Before Hurricane Katrina environment hit, poorly coordinated evacuation efforts had left about 25 percent of the population, almost entirely African Americans who lacked private transportation, to suffer the consequences of the coming storm demographics.
No public transportation was provided, drinking water and communications were delayed, and FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency institutions , was headed by an appointee with no real experience in emergency management. Those who were eventually evacuated did not know where they were being sent or how to contact family members.
African Americans were sent the farthest from their homes. When the displaced began to return, public housing had not been reestablished, yet the Superdome stadium, which had served as a temporary disaster shelter, had been rebuilt.
Homeowners received financial support, but renters did not. And with that clean sheet we have some very big opportunities. Public housing was seriously reduced and the poor were forced out altogether or into the suburbs far from medical and other facilities The Advocate Finally, by relocating African Americans and changing the ratio of African Americans to whites, New Orleans changed its entire demographic makeup.
Modernization describes the processes that increase the amount of specialization and differentiation of structure in societies resulting in the move from an undeveloped society to developed, technologically driven society Irwin By this definition, the level of modernity within a society is judged by the sophistication of its technology, particularly as it relates to infrastructure, industry, and the like.
However, it is important to note the inherent ethnocentric bias of such assessment. Why do we assume that those living in semi-peripheral and peripheral nations would find it so wonderful to become more like the core nations?
We have seen that social change stems from natural forces and also from the intentional acts of groups of people. This section further examines these sources of social change. Much of the discussion so far has talked about population growth as a major source of social change as societies evolved from older to modern times. As just one example, the number of school-aged children reached a high point in the late s as the children of the post—World War II baby boom entered their school years. This swelling of the school-aged population had at least three important consequences. First, new schools had to be built, modular classrooms and other structures had to be added to existing schools, and more teachers and other school personnel had to be hired Leonard, Third, the construction industry, building supply centers, and other businesses profited from the building of new schools and related activities.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The panel discussion was followed by an open floor discussion. James Fitzsimmons U. Census Bureau moderated the session discussions. Weber stated that rural classification systems are created to help characterize how context varies across space and how spatial development patterns affect social and economic outcomes.
Abstract: This paper examines social change in Nigeria between 19using the starting point to address it (University of California Press ). This is an social, political, economic and cultural changes occur repeatedly-.
Wahab, S. Odunsi, O. The culture of a people is their identity as it affords them due recognition.
The paper critically examined the Ekpe society in its indigenous form and nature prior the advent of Christianity, Western education and Western influence. It described the religion, social, economic and political structures of the society as progressive and dynamic. But, Ekpe in the course of the colonial period underwent a wide range of fundamental changes in their structure, roles, status and activities.
Social change , in sociology , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure , characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline , sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields. In the late 19th century, when evolution became the predominant model for understanding biological change, ideas of social change took on an evolutionary cast, and, though other models have refined modern notions of social change, evolution persists as an underlying principle. In the midth century, anthropologists borrowed from the linguistic theory of structuralism to elaborate an approach to social change called structural functionalism.
Social change , in sociology , the alteration of mechanisms within the social structure , characterized by changes in cultural symbols, rules of behaviour, social organizations, or value systems. Throughout the historical development of their discipline , sociologists have borrowed models of social change from other academic fields.
Do you ever listen to a song and find yourself moved so deeply you are almost in tears? Have you ever been to a live performance that turned your worst day into your best? Have you ever heard a song that inspired you? Music has the power to move us and to change us. Yet we see fewer and fewer people taking to the streets with picket signs because of its messages.
Nigeria's national development may be assisted by utilising indigenous conceptions of work in three different ways. The development of a Nigerian work ethic, based on the positive values to be found in the conceptions of work held by different language groups in the country, is one such method, which, by emphasising the similarities in work conceptions held by differing groups, could also aid national integration. Knowledge of work conceptions can be used by management to elicit a generally favourable attitude to work. Basically, this means making the best use of what Nigeria has, i.
PDF | This paper examines social change in Nigeria between 19using the the socio-cultural, political and economic dimensions of change in Nigeria. features,!with!longer!life-span! than!locally!made!goods.
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Can the use of communication contribute to social change and transformation?