File Name: chemistry and technology of emulsion polymerisation .zip
Six quaternary ammonium salts were designed and synthesised with moderate to high yields in three steps, based on cardanol, a low-cost and abundant renewable resource. The new ammonium salts can act as reactive surfactants due to their having both a hydrophilic ammonium group and a hydrophobic unsaturated alkyl chain. The photo-active gemini surfactant with critical micelle concentration CMC of 0.
Emulsion polymerization is a type of radical polymerization that usually starts with an emulsion incorporating water, monomer , and surfactant. The most common type of emulsion polymerization is an oil-in-water emulsion, in which droplets of monomer the oil are emulsified with surfactants in a continuous phase of water. The name "emulsion polymerization" is a misnomer that arises from a historical misconception.
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Ugelstad, F. Hansen; Kinetics and Mechanism of Emulsion Polymerization. Rubber Chemistry and Technology 1 July ; 49 3 : — The course of emulsion polymerization may be considered as involving three intervals: Interval I, where particle formation takes place. The end of this interval is not dependent upon the degree of conversion, but on the total amount of polymer formed. Interval II lasts from the end of Interval I until monomer disappears as a separate phase.
Ingeborg Schreur-Piet and Johan P. E-mail: j. MAA-macromonomers were synthesized by cobalt-mediated catalytic chain transfer polymerization and used as precursors to stabilizers in emulsion polymerization. It was found that only in those polymerizations in which these precursors were sufficiently quickly converted into amphiphilic molecules, via a type of polymerization induced self-assembly PISA mechanism, stable emulsion polymerization could be carried out. This process was too slow in the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate MMA and in order to obtain stable latexes, the addition of a conventional surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS was necessary. In the emulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate, however, reactions with the macromonomers were faster and because of the more hydrophobic nature of BA as compared to MMA , stabilizers were sufficiently quickly formed in situ and stable latexes were produced without the need for additional SDS.
Gardon; Mechanism of Emulsion Polymerization. Rubber Chemistry and Technology 1 January ; 43 1 : 74— Emulsion polymerization is one of the most important processes for the manufacture of polymers for rubbers, plastics, coatings, finishes, and adhesives. By the correct choice of comonomers, initiators, surfactants, and reaction conditions, a great variety of latex products are manufactured which meet many specific requirements in their applications. However, there is a great gap between this mostly empirically developed and sophisticated technology and our scientific understanding of it. The present paper presents a theory based on a single internally consistent model which predicts several experimentally available data of emulsion polymerization: the particle size, the conversion—time relationship, the dependence of particle size and molecular weight on conversion, and the influence of surfactant, of initiator and of monomer.
Chemistry and Technology of Emulsion Polymerisation. Editor(s). A. van Herk. First published:2 September.
The most important result is the discovery of spontaneous emulsification leading to monomer droplets even in the quiescent styrene in water system. These monomer droplets with a size between a few and some hundreds of nanometers, which are formed by spontaneous emulsification as soon as styrene and water are brought into contact, have a strong influence on the particle nucleation, the particle morphology, and the swelling of the particles. Experimental results confirm that micelles of low-molecular-weight surfactants are not a major locus of particle nucleation. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the capture of matter by the particles strongly depends on the polymer volume fraction and the size of the captured species primary free radicals, oligomers, single monomer molecules, or clusters.
Polymer nanocomposites revolutionized research in the composites area by achieving the nanoscale dispersion of the inorganic filler clay platelets in the polymer matrices after suitable surface modifications of the filler phase. A large number of polymer matrices were tried and nanocomposites with varying degrees of successes were achieved with these polymer systems. The majority of the synthesis are carried out by melt blending which frequently result in the full exfoliation of the filler. However, advanced techniques provide a number of advantages as compared to the melt blending and lead to more uniform composites with enhanced properties. There are a number of recent advances in these methods such as the use of reactive surfactants, modified initiators, advanced clay surface modifications, use of a variety of fillers, inverse polymerization, and miniemulsion polymerization methods which have further led the generation of advanced exfoliated nanocomposites.
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts.
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Chemistry and Technology of Emulsion Polymerisation, Second Edition. Editor(s). A.M. van Herk. First published May Print ISBN