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In computing , cross-platform software also multi-platform software or platform-independent software is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms. Cross-platform programs may run on as many as all existing platforms, or on as few as two platforms. Platform can refer to the type of processor CPU or other hardware on which a given operating system or application runs, the type of operating system on a computer or the combination of the type of hardware and the type of operating system running on it.

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Cross-platform software

In computing , cross-platform software also multi-platform software or platform-independent software is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms. Cross-platform programs may run on as many as all existing platforms, or on as few as two platforms. Platform can refer to the type of processor CPU or other hardware on which a given operating system or application runs, the type of operating system on a computer or the combination of the type of hardware and the type of operating system running on it.

Application software can be written to depend on the features of a particular platform—either the hardware, operating system, or virtual machine it runs on. The Java platform is a virtual machine platform which runs on many operating systems and hardware types, and is a common platform for software to be written for.

A hardware platform can refer to an instruction set architecture. For example: x86 architecture and its variants such as IA and x The bit ARM architectures and newer bit version is common on smartphones and tablet computers , which run Android , iOS and other mobile operating systems. Software platforms can either be an operating system or programming environment , though more commonly it is a combination of both.

A notable exception to this is Java , which uses an operating system independent virtual machine for its compiled code, known in the world of Java as bytecode. Examples of software platforms are:. As previously noted, the Java platform is an exception to the general rule that an operating system is a software platform.

The Java language typically compiles to a virtual machine: a virtual CPU which runs all of the code that is written for the language. Java programs can be executed natively using a Java processor. This isn't common and is mostly used for embedded systems. The JVM makes the system calls on behalf of the Java application. This setup allows users to decide the appropriate protection level, depending on an ACL.

For example, disk and network access is usually enabled for desktop applications, but not for browser-based applets. JNI can also be used to enable access to operating system specific functions. For mobile applications, browser plugins are used for Windows and Mac based devices, and Android has built-in support for Java. For a piece of software to be considered cross-platform, it must be able to function on more than one computer architecture or operating system.

Developing such a program can be a time-consuming task because different operating systems have different application programming interfaces API. Software written for a particular operating system does not automatically work on all architectures that operating system supports. One example as of August was OpenOffice. Web applications are typically described as cross-platform because, ideally, they are accessible from any of various web browsers within different operating systems.

Such applications generally employ a client—server system architecture, and vary widely in complexity and functionality. This wide variability significantly complicates the goal of cross-platform capability, which is routinely at odds with the goal of advanced functionality. Basic web applications perform all or most processing from a stateless server , and pass the result to the client web browser.

All user interaction with the application consists of simple exchanges of data requests and server responses. These types of applications were the norm in the early phases of World Wide Web application development. Such applications follow a simple transaction model, identical to that of serving static web pages. Today, they are still relatively common, especially where cross-platform compatibility and simplicity are deemed more critical than advanced functionalities. Prominent examples of advanced web applications include the Web interface to Gmail , A9.

Such advanced applications routinely depend on additional features found only in the more recent versions of popular web browsers. Older versions of popular web browsers tend to lack support for certain features. Because of the competing interests of cross-platform compatibility and advanced functionality, numerous alternative web application design strategies have emerged. Such strategies include:. Graceful degradation attempts to provide the same or similar functionality to all users and platforms, while diminishing that functionality to a least common denominator for more limited client browsers.

For example, a user attempting to use a limited-feature browser to access Gmail may notice that Gmail switches to basic mode, with reduced functionality. This differs from other cross-platform techniques, which attempt to provide equivalent functionality, not just adequate functionality, across platforms. Multiple codebase applications maintain distinct codebases for different hardware and OS platforms, with equivalent functionality. This obviously requires a duplication of effort in maintaining the code, but can be worthwhile where the amount of platform-specific code is high.

This strategy relies on having one codebase that may be compiled to multiple platform-specific formats. One technique is conditional compilation. With this technique, code that is common to all platforms is not repeated.

Blocks of code that are only relevant to certain platforms are made conditional, so that they are only interpreted or compiled when needed. Another technique is separation of functionality, which disables functionality not supported by client browsers or operating systems, while still delivering a complete application to the user. See also: Separation of concerns.

This technique is used in web development where interpreted code as in scripting languages can query the platform it is running on to execute different blocks conditionally. Third-party libraries attempt to simplify cross-platform capability by hiding the complexities of client differentiation behind a single, unified API.

Responsive web design RWD is a Web design approach aimed at crafting the visual layout of sites to provide an optimal viewing experience—easy reading and navigation with a minimum of resizing, panning, and scrolling—across a wide range of devices, from mobile phones to desktop computer monitors. Little or no platform-specific code is used with this technique.

One complicated aspect of cross-platform web application design is the need for software testing. In addition to the complications mentioned previously, there is the additional restriction that some web browsers prohibit installation of different versions of the same browser on the same operating system. Although, there are several development approaches that companies use to target multiple platforms, all of them result in software that requires substantial manual effort for testing and maintenance across the supported platforms.

Using tools such as the Page Object Model, cross platform tests can be scripted in such a way that one test case is usable for multiple versions of an app. So long as the different versions have similar user interfaces, both versions can be tested at one time, with one test case.

The distinction between traditional and web applications is not always clear. Features, installation methods and architectures for web and traditional applications overlap and blur the distinction. Nevertheless, this simplifying distinction is a common and useful generalization. Traditionally in modern computing, application software has been distributed to end-users as binary file, especially executable files.

Executables only support the operating system and computer architecture that they were built for—which means that making a single cross-platform executable would be something of a massive task, and is generally replaced by offering a selection of executables for the platforms supported. The use of different toolsets to perform different builds may not be sufficient to achieve a variety of working executables for different platforms.

In this case, the software engineer must port it, i. For example, a program such as Firefox, which already runs on Windows on the x86 family, can be modified and re-built to run on Linux on the x86 and potentially other architectures as well. The multiple versions of the code may be stored as separate codebases, or merged into one codebase by conditional compilation see above. Note that, while porting must be accompanied by cross-platform building, the reverse is not the case. A script can be considered to be cross-platform if its interpreter is available on multiple platforms and the script only uses the facilities provided by the language.

That is, a script written in Python for a Unix-like system will likely run with little or no modification on Windows, because Python also runs on Windows; there is also more than one implementation of Python that will run the same scripts e.

NET Framework. The same goes for many of the open-source programming languages that are available and are scripting languages. Unlike binary executable files, the same script can be used on all computers that have software to interpret the script. This is because the script is generally stored in plain text in a text file. There may be some issues, however, such as the type of new line character that sits between the lines.

Generally, however, little or no work has to be done to make a script written for one system, run on another. Some quite popular cross-platform scripting or interpreted languages are:. Cross-platform or multi-platform is a term that can also apply to video games released on a range of video game consoles , specialized computers dedicated to the task of playing games.

Each has been released across a variety of gaming platforms, such as the Wii , PlayStation 3 , Xbox , personal computers PCs , and mobile devices. The characteristics of a particular system may lengthen the time taken to implement a video game across multiple platforms. So, a video game may initially be released on a few platforms and then later released on remaining platforms.

Typically, this situation occurs when a new gaming system is released, because video game developers need to acquaint themselves with the hardware and software associated with the new console. Some games may not become cross-platform because of licensing agreements between developers and video game console manufacturers that limit development of a game to one particular console.

As an example, Disney could create a game with the intention of release on the latest Nintendo and Sony game consoles. Should Disney license the game with Sony first, Disney may in exchange be required to release the game solely on Sony's console for a short time or indefinitely —effectively prohibiting a cross-platform release for the duration. Several developers have implemented means to play games online while using different platforms.

Psyonix , Epic Games , Microsoft , and Valve all possess technology that allows Xbox and PlayStation 3 gamers to play with PC gamers, leaving the decision of which platform to use to consumers. The first game to allow this level of interactivity between PC and console games was Quake 3. Cross-platform programming is the practice of actively writing software that will work on more than one platform. There are different ways of approaching the problem of writing a cross-platform application program.

While this is a straightforward approach to the problem, it has the potential to be considerably more expensive in development cost, development time, or both, especially for corporate entities. The idea behind this is to create more than two different programs that have the ability to behave similarly to each other. It is also possible that this means of developing a cross-platform application will result in more problems with bug tracking and fixing, because the two different source trees would have different programmers, and thus different defects in each version.

Another approach that is used is to depend on pre-existing software that hides the differences between the platforms—called abstraction of the platform—such that the program itself is unaware of the platform it is running on. It could be said that such programs are platform agnostic. Some applications mix various methods of cross-platform programming to create the final application.

An example of this is the Firefox web browser, which uses abstraction to build some of the lower-level components, separate source subtrees for implementing platform-specific features like the GUI , and the implementation of more than one scripting language to help facilitate ease of portability.

There are a number of tools [12] [13] which are available to help facilitate the process of cross-platform programming:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the railway station interchange, see cross-platform interchange.

Apple iOS Architecture

The Android Support Library offers backward-compatible versions of a number of features, including others not built into the framework. Android 12 Developer Preview is here! Try it out, and give us your feedback! Android Developers. Get started Build your first app. Sample code.

Document viewer library for android. Android library written in Kotlin, but can be used in Java too. With JavaScript you can use our Cordova or React Native binding libraries for more native development. It was originally written for Java but has since been ported to. Built to handle a single or multiple Uri paths received through Intents.

Code Samples to convert to / from PDF in Android

Android 8. HIDL separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new vendor interface. The difference between the legacy Android architecture and the current, HIDL-based architecture is in the use of the vendor interface:.

It is an open-sourced operating system that is used primarily on mobile devices, such as cell phones and tablets. It is a Linux kernel-based system that's been equipped with rich components that allows developers to create and run apps that can perform both basic and advanced functions. It contains a graphical interface that emulates an Android driven handheld environment, allowing them to test and debug their codes. The Android Framework is an important aspect of the Android Architecture. Here you can find all the classes and methods that developers would need in order to write applications on the Android environment.

This part of the iOS tutorial will teach you about the iOS architecture, its layers, details of various layers, video framework, cocoa touch layer, multitasking support and more.

iOS Architecture

Xamarin is an open-source platform for building modern and performant applications for iOS, Android, and Windows with. Xamarin is an abstraction layer that manages communication of shared code with underlying platform code. Xamarin runs in a managed environment that provides conveniences such as memory allocation and garbage collection. This pattern allows developers to write all of their business logic in a single language or reuse existing application code but achieve native performance, look, and feel on each platform. Xamarin applications can be written on PC or Mac and compile into native application packages, such as an.

When used by health authorities, it augments more traditional contact tracing techniques by automatically logging encounters with other notification system users using their Android or iOS smartphone. Exposure Notification is a decentralized reporting based protocol built on a combination of Bluetooth Low Energy technology and privacy-preserving cryptography. It is used as an opt-in feature within COVID apps developed and published by authorized health authorities. This leads to issues, particularly on iOS devices where digital contact tracing apps running in the background experience significantly degraded performance. The ACLU stated the approach "appears to mitigate the worst privacy and centralization risks, but there is still room for improvement".

IOS 6 Architecture and SDK Frameworks Features of this framework include PDF document creation and presentation, vector based drawing, transparent.

Learn more By just about any measure, the iPhone is an impressive achievement in the fields of industrial design and hardware engineering. When we develop apps for the iPhone, however, Apple does not allow us direct access to any of this hardware. In fact, all hardware interaction takes place exclusively through a number of different layers of software which act as intermediaries between the application code and device hardware.


Eve M. 14.05.2021 at 02:41

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