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Data Mining Concepts And Techniques Han And Kamber Pdf

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Download the full version of the book with a hyper-linked table of contents that make it easy to jump around: PDF file pages, 3.

Our capabilities of both generating and collecting data have been increasing rapidly in the last several decades. Contributing factors include the widespread use of bar codes for most commercial products, the computerization of many business, scientic and government transactions and managements, and advances in data collection tools ranging from scanned texture and image platforms, to on-line instrumentation in manufacturing and shopping, and to satellite remote sensing systems. In addition, popular use of the World Wide Web as a global information system has ooded us with a tremendous amount of data and information.

Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques, 3rd edition

Do not copy! Do not distribute! What is data mining? In your answer, address the following: a Is it another hype? Data mining refers to the process or method that extracts or mines interesting knowledge or patterns from large amounts of data. Data mining is not another hype. Instead, the need for data mining has arisen due to the wide availability of huge amounts of data and the imminent need for turning such data into useful information and knowledge.

Thus, data mining can be viewed as the result of the natural evolution of information technology. Data mining is more than a simple transformation of technology developed from databases, statistics, and machine learning. Instead, data mining involves an integration, rather than a simple transformation, of techniques from multiple disciplines such as database technology, statistics, machine learning, high-performance computing, pattern recognition, neural networks, data visualization, information retrieval, image and signal processing, and spatial data analysis.

Database technology began with the development of data collection and database creation mechanisms that led to the development of effective mechanisms for data management including data storage and retrieval, and query and transaction processing. The large number of database systems offering query and transaction processing eventually and naturally led to the need for data analysis and understanding. Hence, data mining began its development out of this necessity.

The steps involved in data mining when viewed as a process of knowledge discovery are as follows: Data cleaning, a process that removes or transforms noise and inconsistent data Data integration, where multiple data sources may be combined 3.

Present an example where data mining is crucial to the success of a business. What data mining functions does this business need? Can they be performed alternatively by data query processing or simple statistical analysis?

A department store, for example, can use data mining to assist with its target marketing mail campaign. Using data mining functions such as association, the store can use the mined strong association rules to determine which products bought by one group of customers are likely to lead to the buying of certain other products. With this information, the store can then mail marketing materials only to those kinds of customers who exhibit a high likelihood of purchasing additional products.

Data query processing is used for data or information retrieval and does not have the means for finding association rules.

Similarly, simple statistical analysis cannot handle large amounts of data such as those of customer records in a department store Suppose your task as a software engineer at Big-University is to design a data mining system to examine their university course database, which contains the following information: the name, address, and status e.

Describe the architecture you would choose. What is the purpose of each component of this architecture? A data mining architecture that can be used for this application would consist of the following major components: A database, data warehouse, or other information repository, which consists of the set of databases, data warehouses, spreadsheets, or other kinds of information repositories containing the student and course information.

A database or data warehouse server, which fetches the relevant data based on the users data mining requests. A knowledge base that contains the domain knowledge used to guide the search or to evaluate the interestingness of resulting patterns. For example, the knowledge base may contain concept hierarchies and metadata e. A data mining engine, which consists of a set of functional modules for tasks such as classification, association, classification, cluster analysis, and evolution and deviation analysis.

A pattern evaluation module that works in tandem with the data mining modules by employing interestingness measures to help focus the search towards interesting patterns. A graphical user interface that provides the user with an interactive approach to the data mining system. How are they similar? Differences between a data warehouse and a database: A data warehouse is a repository of information collected from multiple sources, over a history of time, stored under a unified schema, and used for data analysis and decision support; whereas a database, is a collection of interrelated data that represents the current status of the stored data.

There could be multiple heterogeneous databases where the schema of one database may not agree with the schema of another. A database system supports ad-hoc query and on-line transaction processing. Similarities between a data warehouse and a database: Both are repositories of information, storing huge amounts of persistent data Briefly describe the following advanced database systems and applications: object-relational databases, spatial databases, text databases, multimedia databases, the World Wide Web.

An objected-oriented database is designed based on the object-oriented programming paradigm where data are a large number of objects organized into classes and class hierarchies. Each entity in the database is considered as an object. The object contains a set of variables that describe the object, a set of messages that the object can use to communicate with other objects or with the rest of the database system, and a set of methods where each method holds the code to implement a message.

A spatial database contains spatial-related data, which may be represented in the form of raster or vector data. Raster data consists of n-dimensional bit maps or pixel maps, and vector data are represented by lines, points, polygons or other kinds of processed primitives, Some examples of spatial databases include geographical map databases, VLSI chip designs, and medical and satellite images databases.

A text database is a database that contains text documents or other word descriptions in the form of long sentences or paragraphs, such as product specifications, error or bug reports, warning messages, summary reports, notes, or other documents. A multimedia database stores images, audio, and video data, and is used in applications such as picture content-based retrieval, voic systems, video-on-demand systems, the World Wide Web, and speech-based user interfaces.

The World Wide Web provides rich, world-wide, on-line information services, where data objects are linked together to facilitate interactive access. Give examples of each data mining functionality, using a real-life database that you are familiar with. Characterization is a summarization of the general characteristics or features of a target class of data. For example, the characteristics of students can be produced, generating a profile of all the University first year computing science students, which may include such information as a high GPA and large number of courses taken.

Discrimination is a comparison of the general features of target class data objects with the general features of objects from one or a set of contrasting classes. For example, the general features of students with high GPA s may be compared with the general features of students with low GPA s. The resulting. Association is the discovery of association rules showing attribute-value conditions that occur frequently together in a given set of data.

Classification differs from prediction in that the former constructs a set of models or functions that describe and distinguish data classes or concepts, whereas the latter builds a model to predict some missing or unavailable, and often numerical, data values. Their similarity is that they are both tools for prediction: Classification is used for predicting the class label of data objects and prediction is typically used for predicting missing numerical data values.

Clustering analyzes data objects without consulting a known class label. The objects are clustered or grouped based on the principle of maximizing the intraclass similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity.

Each cluster that is formed can be viewed as a class of objects. Clustering can also facilitate taxonomy formation, that is, the organization of observations into a hierarchy of classes that group similar events together. Data evolution analysis describes and models regularities or trends for objects whose behavior changes over time. Although this may include characterization, discrimination, association, classification, or clustering of time-related data, distinct features of such an analysis include time-series data analysis, sequence or periodicity pattern matching, and similarity-based data analysis What is the difference between discrimination and classification?

Between characterization and clustering? Between classification and prediction? For each of these pairs of tasks, how are they similar? Discrimination differs from classification in that the former refers to a comparison of the general features of target class data objects with the general features of objects from one or a set of contrasting classes, while the latter is the process of finding a set of models or functions that describe and distinguish data classes or concepts for the purpose of being able to use the model to predict the class of objects whose class label is unknown.

Discrimination and classification are similar in that they both deal with the analysis of class data objects. Characterization differs from clustering in that the former refers to a summarization of the general characteristics or features of a target class of data while the latter deals with the analysis of data objects without consulting a known class label.

This pair of tasks is similar in that they both deal with grouping together objects or data that are related or have high similarity in comparison to one another. Classification differs from prediction in that the former is the process of finding a set of models or functions that describe and distinguish data class or concepts while the latter predicts missing or unavailable, and often numerical, data values.

This pair of tasks is similar in that they both are tools for prediction: Classification is used for predicting the class label of data objects and prediction is typically used for predicting missing numerical data values.

EXERCISES Based on your observation, describe another possible kind of knowledge that needs to be discovered by data mining methods but has not been listed in this chapter. Does it require a mining methodology that is quite different from those outlined in this chapter? There is no standard answer for this question and one can judge the quality of an answer based on the freshness and quality of the proposal.

For example, one may propose partial periodicity as a new kind of knowledge, where a pattern is partial periodic if only some offsets of a certain time period in a time series demonstrate some repeating behavior List and describe the five primitives for specifying a data mining task. The five primitives for specifying a data-mining task are: Task-relevant data: This primitive specifies the data upon which mining is to be performed. It involves specifying the database and tables or data warehouse containing the relevant data, conditions for selecting the relevant data, the relevant attributes or dimensions for exploration, and instructions regarding the ordering or grouping of the data retrieved.

Knowledge type to be mined: This primitive specifies the specific data mining function to be performed, such as characterization, discrimination, association, classification, clustering, or evolution analysis. As well, the user can be more specific and provide pattern templates that all discovered patterns must match. These templates, or metapatterns also called metarules or metaqueries , can be used to guide the discovery process.

Background knowledge: This primitive allows users to specify knowledge they have about the domain to be mined. Such knowledge can be used to guide the knowledge discovery process and evaluate the patterns that are found.

Concept hierarchies and user beliefs regarding relationships in the data are forms of background knowledge. Pattern interestingness measure: This primitive allows users to specify functions that are used to separate uninteresting patterns from knowledge and may be used to guide the mining process, as well as to evaluate the discovered patterns. This allows the user to confine the number of uninteresting patterns returned by the process, as a data mining process may generate a large number of patterns.

Interestingness measures can be specified for such pattern characteristics as simplicity, certainty, utility and novelty. Visualization of discovered patterns: This primitive refers to the form in which discovered patterns are to be displayed. In order for data mining to be effective in conveying knowledge to users, data mining systems should be able to display the discovered patterns in multiple forms such as rules, tables, cross tabs cross-tabulations , pie or bar charts, decision trees, cubes or other visual representations Describe why concept hierarchies are useful in data mining.

Concept hierarchies define a sequence of mappings from a set of lower-level concepts to higher-level, more general concepts and can be represented as a set of nodes organized in a tree, in the form of a lattice, or as a partial order. They are useful in data mining because they allow the discovery of knowledge at multiple levels of abstraction and provide the structure on which data can be generalized rolled-up or specialized drilled-down.

Together, these operations allow users to view the data from different perspectives, gaining further insight into relationships hidden in the data. This will be more efficient than mining on a large, uncompressed data set. However, one person s garbage could be another s treasure. For example, exceptions in credit card transactions can help us detect the fraudulent use of credit cards.

Taking fraudulence detection as an example, propose two methods that can be used to detect outliers and discuss which one is more reliable. Using clustering techniques: After clustering, the different clusters represent the different kinds of data transactions. The outliers are those data points that do not fall into any cluster. Among the various kinds of clustering methods, density-based clustering may be the most effective. Clustering is detailed in Chapter 8.

Using prediction or regression techniques: Constructed a probability regression model based on all of the data. If the predicted value for a data point differs greatly from the given value, then the given value may be consider an outlier. Outlier detection based on clustering techniques may be more reliable.

(PDF) Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 2nd Edition

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Feel Free to browse! Show full item record. It discusses the evolutionary path of information technology, which has led to the need for data mining, and the importance of its applications. It examines the data types to be mined, including relational, transactional, and data warehouse data, as well as complex data types such as time-series, sequences, data streams, spatiotemporal data, multimedia data, text data, graphs, social networks, and Web data. Chapter 2 introduces the general data features. It overviews data visualization techniques for various kinds of data.

Do not copy! Do not distribute! What is data mining? In your answer, address the following: a Is it another hype? Data mining refers to the process or method that extracts or mines interesting knowledge or patterns from large amounts of data. Data mining is not another hype. Instead, the need for data mining has arisen due to the wide availability of huge amounts of data and the imminent need for turning such data into useful information and knowledge.

Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques provides the concepts and techniques in processing gathered data or information, which will be used in various applications. Specifically, it explains data mining and the tools used in discovering knowledge from the collected data. This book is referred as the knowledge discovery from data KDD. It focuses on the feasibility, usefulness, effectiveness, and scalability of techniques of large data sets. After describing data mining, this edition explains the methods of knowing, preprocessing, processing, and warehousing data. It then presents information about data warehouses, online analytical processing OLAP , and data cube technology.


Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber have been leading contributors to data mining research. knowledge. This book explores the concepts and techniques of data mining, a promising and Table of contents of the book in PDF. Errata on the.


SAINTGITS College

Там было темно, но он разглядел дорогие восточные ковры и полированное красное дерево. На противоположной стене висело распятие в натуральную величину. Беккер остановился. Тупик. Стоя возле креста, он слушал, как приближаются шаги Халохота, смотрел на распятие и проклинал судьбу.

 В… аэропорт. Aeropuerto, - заикаясь сказал Двухцветный. - Aeropuerto? - повторил человек, внимательно следя за движением губ Двухцветного в зеркале. - Панк кивнул.

 - Человек умирал, и у него было одно желание. Мы просто исполнили его последнюю волю.

Data Mining Concepts And Techniques Jiawei Han Micheline Kamber (2000) pdf

 No lo se, senor. He знаю. Но уж определенно не здесь! - Он улыбнулся.  - Может, все-таки чего-нибудь выпьете. Беккер понимал, что, по мнению бармена, ведет себя странно. - Quiere Vd.

Что подумают люди. - В шифровалке проблемы.  - Она безуспешно старалась говорить спокойно. Джабба нахмурился. - Мы это уже обсудили.


Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber. Simon Fraser University. Note: This manuscript is based on a forthcoming book by.


han kamber data mining third edition

 - Быть может, он не знал, что бомбы были одинаковые. - Нет! - отрезала Сьюзан.  - Он стал калекой из-за этих бомб. И он знал про них. ГЛАВА 126 - Одна минута.

Желтый сигнал тревоги вспыхнул над шифровалкой, и свет, пульсируя, прерывистыми пятнами упал налицо коммандера. - Может, отключить его самим? - предложила Сьюзан. Стратмор кивнул. Ему не нужно было напоминать, что произойдет, если три миллиона процессоров перегреются и воспламенятся. Коммандеру нужно было подняться к себе в кабинет и отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, пока никто за пределами шифровалки не заметил этой угрожающей ситуации и не отправил людей им на помощь. Стратмор бросил взгляд на лежавшего в беспамятстве Хейла, положил беретту на столик рядом со Сьюзан и крикнул, перекрывая вой сирены: - Я сейчас вернусь! - Исчезая через разбитое стекло стены Третьего узла, он громко повторил: - Найди ключ. Поиски ключа не дали никаких результатов.

 - А как же принцип Бергофского. О принципе Бергофского Сьюзан узнала еще в самом начале своей карьеры. Это был краеугольный камень метода грубой силы. Именно этим принципом вдохновлялся Стратмор, приступая к созданию ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Он недвусмысленно гласит, что если компьютер переберет достаточное количество ключей, то есть математическая гарантия, что он найдет правильный. Безопасность шифра не в том, что нельзя найти ключ, а в том, что у большинства людей для этого нет ни времени, ни необходимого оборудования.

Если информация верна, выходит, Танкадо и его партнер - это одно и то же лицо. Мысли ее смешались. Хоть бы замолчала эта омерзительная сирена. Почему Стратмор отмел такую возможность. Хейл извивался на полу, стараясь увидеть, чем занята Сьюзан.

Он и мысли не допускал о том, что кто-то из сотрудников лаборатории узнает о Цифровой крепости. - Наверное, стоит выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - предложила Сьюзан.  - Потом мы запустим его снова, а Филу скажем, что ему все это приснилось. Стратмор задумался над ее словами, затем покачал головой: - Пока не стоит. ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает пятнадцать часов.

Вниз. Скорее. Еще одна спираль.

Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems)

 - Он пожал ее руку. - Примите мои поздравления, мистер Беккер.

5 Comments

Winston N. 10.05.2021 at 22:02

Our capabilities of both generating and collecting data have been increasing rapidly in the last several decades.

Hilaire V. 12.05.2021 at 00:24

Realizing this must be where the original discoverers of the shaft had broken through while digging their cistern, Lucia was elated-until she realized the ceiling of the cavern was at least three feet beyond her reach.

Idumeo C. 17.05.2021 at 17:22

A distribution with more than one mode is said to be bimodal, trimodal, etc.

Katrina W. 17.05.2021 at 17:39

Han, Jiawei. Data mining: concepts and techniques / Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei. – 3rd ed. Contents of the book in PDF format. Errata on the.

Lconbulkdownta 18.05.2021 at 08:14

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