File Name: to measure the horizontal and vertical angles by theodolite .zip
The traditional use has been for land surveying , but they are also used extensively for building and infrastructure construction , and some specialized applications such as meteorology and rocket launching. It consists of a moveable telescope mounted so it can rotate around horizontal and vertical axes and provide angular readouts. These indicate the orientation of the telescope, and are used to relate the first point sighted through the telescope to subsequent sightings of other points from the same theodolite position. These angles can be measured with accuracies down to microradians or seconds of arc. From these readings a plan can be drawn, or objects can be positioned in accordance with an existing plan. The modern theodolite has evolved into what is known as a total station where angles and distances are measured electronically, and are read directly to computer memory. In a transit theodolite, the telescope is short enough to rotate through the zenith , otherwise for non-transit instruments vertical or altitude , rotation is restricted to a limited arc.
There are two different kinds of theodolites: digital and non digital. Non digital theodolites are rarely used anymore. Digital theodolites consist of a telescope that is mounted on a base, as well as an electronic readout screen that is used to display horizontal and vertical angles. Digital theodolites are convenient because the digital readouts take the place of traditional graduated circles and this creates more accurate readings. Like other leveling instruments, a theodolite consists of a telescope mounted on a base. The telescope has a sight on the top of it that is used to align the target. The instrument has a focusing knob that is used to make the object clear.
We can conduct a measurement based on distances only using tape or EDM in order to obtain a map of a surveyed area or to establish BP. Such method is called trilateration. With equipment such is a theodolite, we can usually get much more accurate description of surveyed area. Vertical angles are usually needed to move over vertical obstacle and for trigonometric leveling explained in other chapter. Horizon is parallel to the earth surface, and zenith is perpendicular to the horizon. Vertical angles are being taken from zenith or horizon, both method are usually supported by modern instruments.
M ea s urement of horizontal and vertical angles in the field by using Theodolite. A Theodolite is a measuring instrument used to measure the horizontal and vertical angles. Theodolite is more precise than magnetic compass. It is of either transit or non-transit type. In Transit theodolites the telescope can rotate in a complete circle in the vertical plane while Non-transit theodolites are those in which the telescope can rotate only in a semicircle in the vertical plane.
Determining the position of animals at sea can be particularly difficult and yet, accurate range and position of animals at sea are essential to answer a wide range of biological questions. Shore-based theodolite techniques have been used in a number of studies to examine marine mammal movement patterns and habitat use, offering reliable position measurements. The technique was developed to study the habitat use of sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus off Kaikoura, New Zealand. We observed that the position accuracy fell rapidly with an increase in range from the shore-based station.
Though for sketch maps the compass or graphic techniques are acceptable for measuring angles, only the theodolite can assure the accuracy required in the framework needed for precise mapping. The theodolite consists of a telescope pivoted around horizontal and vertical axes so that it can measure both horizontal and vertical angles. These angles are read from circles graduated in degrees and smaller intervals of 10 or 20 minutes. The exact position of the index mark showing the direction of the line of sight between two of these graduations is measured on both sides of the circle with the aid of a vernier or a micrometer. With such an instrument a sideways movement of the target of one centimetre can be detected at a distance of two kilometres.
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