File Name: through the mud and the blood .zip
Avila , A. Total Environ. Burt , S.
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Kindly sent by the teacher and historian Roy Huggins, this collection of quotes is from:. Gordon Corrigan , Mud, Blood and Poppycock Butcher of the Somme? Lions led by Donkeys?
Kindly sent by the teacher and historian Roy Huggins, this collection of quotes is from:. Gordon Corrigan , Mud, Blood and Poppycock Butcher of the Somme? Lions led by Donkeys? The central idea of Mud, Blood and Poppycock is that myths have grown up and entered the popular consciousness about World War One - especially about Haig and the generals - which are greatly exaggerated or mistaken:.
Source A: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page The life and work of Sir Douglas Haig, commander of the BEF from December and a field marshal from January , has probably been the subject of more contradictory analysis than any other general in British military history.
To some he was a butcher and a bungler, to others the man who won the war. Source B: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page Historical opinion is shifting, and shifting in favour of Haig.
Public opinion has yet to follow, but much of the received wisdom about Haig is founded on tainted evidence, or no evidence at all. This author, at least, can only conclude that Haig has been grievously wronged. Source C: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page Haig is pictured as uncaring, and his failure to visit the wounded in hospital is often cited as an example of his unfeeling attitude to the deaths that resulted from his plans.
Haig did visit the wounded regularly in the early days. It was his staff officers, noting the effect it had on him, who advised him to stop. A commander who is psychologically damaged by the sight of so many wounded and maimed soldiers — his own soldiers — cannot be at his best.
Generals, and indeed officers of any rank, may seem uncaring to the civilian mind. A commander cannot allow the death of one, or a hundred or a thousand of the men placed under him to affect his performance.
If he does, that commander cannot properly discharge his responsibilities to the others who are still alive. Life has to go on, and while any commander will miss a fallen comrade, and regret his passing, he must move on: there is little time to mourn. Any general will make plans with the possibility of casualties well to the forefront of his thinking, but war is a nasty business, and killing is part of it. British generals were not uncaring but they accepted, as they had to, that the very nature of the war, would lead to many deaths however hard they tried to avoid them.
Haig wanted a breakthrough; he never wanted to engage the British army in battles of attrition. Until that breakthrough was never achieved, but nor could anybody else on either side achieve it. Haig was neither hidebound nor resistant to technology; indeed it was Haig who, on taking command of the BEF, first heard of the experiments with tanks and insisted that development should be given a high priority.
That tanks when first used were not the hoped-for war-winning weapon was nothing to do with Haig, but rather with problems inherent in development of any new method of waging war. Haig encouraged the development of air power, and it was the BEF who by had the only strategic bomber force capable of any meaningful contribution to the war.
Alone amongst the original warring powers, the morale of the British army never cracked, and it was the British army that in was the only Allied army capable of mounting a massive and sustained offensive.
Source G: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page On balance Haig was the best commander that the British army could produce at the time, and had there been any other general capable of stepping into his shoes, Prime Minister Lloyd George would have found him. Source H: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page Altogether four British lieutenant generals, twelve major generals and eighty-one brigadier generals died or were killed between and A further were wounded or taken prisoner.
Whatever else the generals were doing they were certainly not sitting in a comfortable chateaux. Source I: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page - 6. It can be argued that generals should not be anywhere near the front line. It is not the business of a general to kill the enemy, but to control the battle so that units under his command can do the killing.
Here was one of the great quandaries of the war. The general had to be close enough to the fighting to know what was going on, but far enough from it to be able to communicate: with the artillery, with his own subordinate formations, with flanking units and with his own superiors.
Today a general, at whatever level of command, can operate from a relatively small mobile headquarters, using radio and satellite communications. None of this was available to a commander of — Source I: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page Most generals slept in a bed with a roof over them — they could not possibly have done their job in a dugout in the firing line — but they were very busy men.
Source J: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page The typical British general of the time is thought to be old, grey haired, overweight and sporting a large moustache, a cavalryman dressed in boots and breeches and carrying a swagger cane. The awkward fact that the Allies did actually win the war is variously ascribed to German exhaustion and social unrest, the Americans, the French or the Royal Navy blockade. That the British army was the only major army on the Western Front, which did not suffer a major collapse of morale, is explained by British stolidity bravery in the face of incompetent leadership.
Source K: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page At divisional level in few of the major generals were over fifty, most were in their late forties and Jackson was thirty-nine. At brigade level there was a wide range: most brigadiers were in their late forties and hardly any were over fifty in Jack and Brand were thirty-eight and had started the war as captains in Further down the chain of command, lieutenant colonels commanding battalions were often in their thirties — or even twenties — by Source L: Mud, Blood and Poppycock , page The 'Horrors' of the Trenches.
The perception of soldiering in the Great War is of a young patriot enlisting in to do his bit, and then being shipped off to France. Reaching the firing line, he is put into a filthy hole in the ground and stays there until If he survives, he is fed a tasteless and meagre diet of bully beef and biscuits. He never sees a general and rarely changes his lice infested clothes, while rates gnaw the dead bodies of his comrades.
The original BEF, composed of pre-war regulars and reservists, did do quite a lot of marching, but they would have been very unlucky to have to tramp all the way from Boulogne to Belgium. As far as possible men moved by train until they were a few miles from the front, and as the war went on and motor lorries became available these too were used to speed up movement.
As early as London buses were shipped out to the front for use as troop carriers. French and German ideas on trench construction differed according to the military philosophy of the two nations. The French military doctrine was of constant aggression: the offensive was what mattered, and their works reflected this. They were largely earthen, used little concrete and were often without revetment zigzagging. Their main purpose was to provide a launching pad for the French attacks.
German defences. On the other hand, were stoutly and meticulously constructed. Concrete was used and deep dugouts were built; in some cases so well built and so deep that no Allied artillery could affect them, as the British would learn to their cost on the Somme. The design and dimensions of British trenches were based on a good British compromise. The British adopted much from the French methods, but they also used concrete and revetting when available.
Unlike the French, the British were not wedded to the idea of constant attacks. Indeed, in private some British commanders and politicians thought that Britain should stay on the defensive until her New armies were ready and then intervene massively, end the war and dictate the future shape of Europe.
Despite the tales of rats, lice and general filth, cleanliness and hygiene in the trenches were strictly enforced. The paid a great deal of attention to its latrines, as indeed it had to. Disease caused by poor hygiene had dogged armies throughout history and dysentery had always been a big problem.
By now the army was well aware that if human waste was not disposed of properly, unnecessary casualties would follow. The average made produces 2. In the average company defended position this in a ton a week. In the forward areas latrines were constructed just behind the trenches at the end of a communication trench and out of view of the enemy. They were usually deep pits with wooden seats on top. Disinfectant was provided and when full the latrine was closed.
A general lack of cleanliness made worse by food left lying about, particularly in and around horse lines and abandoned ration dumps, could of course attract rats.
Bodies were always buried whenever humanly possible and taken to the rear for temporary burial, before being given a proper funeral. Bodies left lying around where the fell were not good fore morale; they were never left in the trenches or buried in the parapet as was the practice in the French trenches. Good discipline got rid of rubbish and edible scraps, and rats were rarely a problem in the trenches, although lice, inevitable when men cannot wash properly, sometimes were.
On coming out of the line troops had their uniforms fumigated, laundered and ironed, and if necessary exchanged to reduce the risk of infestation. British soldiers did not spend four years of the war in the firing line, or even at the front.
Men were regularly rotated from the firing line to the support and reserve trenches and then back to billets, usually well behind the battle area. With a division having two brigades in the line and one out, and with each brigade having two of its four battalions in the line, a battalion could expect on average, to spend just ten days a month in the trenches.
It was unusual to find any battalion spending more than four or five days a month continuously in the firing line.
The winter of —15 was exceptionally cold and wet, and flooding of trenches was a problem. Initially this led to large numbers of men contracting trench foot, caused by lack of circulation in the feet and legs and. If untreated, leading to gangrene and amputation.
Most cases were caught before recourse to the knife but, before preventative measures were enforced, many soldiers suffered from bad feet. The remedies were the issue of whale oil and thigh high rubber waders, the loosening of puttees, regular changing of socks, and drainage of the trenches. At first drains were soak pits dug into the floor, but mechanical pumps would later be provided. By the middle of trench foot had all but been eliminated, except in battalions new to the front.
It is now recognised that a fit, active and athletic adult male needs a daily intake of between 3, and 2, calories.
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Through the Mud and the Blood then email us to get the free inter-war PDF supplement, “Triumphant Standards” which covers the Very British Civil War.
Researchers place both species in the taxonomic genus Farancia. Read on to learn about the Rainbow Snake. They like spending their time under the aquatic vegetation. They contain small dark eyes and often have some yellow coloration on the head. Mud snakes usually grow to a total length of 40 to 54 inches.
Fields of Battle pp Cite as. Revisionist military historians have challenged this perception lately producing work that demonstrates the huge strides made by the British Expeditionary Force BEF in terms of combat effectiveness.
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In Ice, Mud and Blood, Professor Chris Turney explores the changing climate and the risks facing us today as we continue to drive our planet to new extremes.
Теперь обе машины, потеряв управление, неслись к стене ангара. Беккер отчаянно давил на тормоз, но покрышки потеряли всякое сцепление с полом. Спереди на него быстро надвигалась стена. Такси все еще продолжало крутиться, и в ожидании столкновения он сжался в комок. Раздался оглушающий треск гофрированного металла.
- Вы рискуете попасть в Сьюзан. Хейл выжидал. Стояла полная тишина, и он внимательно прислушался. Ничего.
Свет в бывшем гимнастическом зале выключили. Пьер Клушар спал глубоким сном и не видел склонившегося над ним человека. Игла похищенного у медсестры шприца блеснула в темноте и погрузилась в вену чуть выше запястья Клушара. Шприц был наполнен тридцатью кубиками моющего средства, взятого с тележки уборщицы.
Я сам попытался отправить твой маячок, но ты использовала для него один из новейших гибридных языков, и мне не удалось привести его в действие. Он посылал какую-то тарабарщину.
Сто десять? - оживился Джабба. - Сколько будет сто десять минус тридцать пять и две десятых. - Семьдесят четыре и восемь десятых, - сказала Сьюзан.
Учитель превратился в ученика. Однажды вечером на университетском представлении Щелкунчика Сьюзан предложила Дэвиду вскрыть шифр, который можно было отнести к числу базовых. Весь антракт он просидел с ручкой в руке, ломая голову над посланием из одиннадцати букв: HL FKZC VD LDS В конце концов, когда уже гасли огни перед началом второго акта, его осенило. Шифруя послание, Сьюзан просто заменила в нем каждую букву на предшествующую ей алфавите. Для расшифровки Беккеру нужно было всего лишь подставить вместо имеющихся букв те, что следовали непосредственно за ними: А превращалось в В, В - в С и так далее.
АНБ. - Никогда о таком не слышал. Беккер заглянул в справочник Управления общей бухгалтерской отчетности США, но не нашел в нем ничего похожего.
У Халохота был компьютер Монокль, мы и его проверили. Похоже, он не передал ничего хотя бы отдаленно похожего на набор букв и цифр - только список тех, кого ликвидировал. - Черт возьми! - не сдержался Фонтейн, теряя самообладание. - Он должен там. Ищите.
Прямо перед ней во всю стену был Дэвид, его лицо с резкими чертами. - Сьюзан, я хочу кое о чем тебя спросить. - Звук его голоса гулко раздался в комнате оперативного управления, и все тут же замерли, повернувшись к экрану. - Сьюзан Флетчер, выйдете за меня замуж. В комнате зашушукались.
Фреоновые вентиляторы с урчанием наполняли подсобку красным туманом. Прислушавшись к пронзительному звуку генераторов, Сьюзан поняла, что включилось аварийное питание. Сквозь туман она увидела Стратмора, который стоял внизу, на платформе.
Вырубить электропитание и снова его включить значило лишь вызвать повторное замыкание.
Американская разведка тоже идет по следу. Они, вполне естественно, хотят предотвратить распространение Цифровой крепости, поэтому послали на поиски ключа человека по имени Дэвид Беккер. - Откуда вам это известно. - Это не имеет отношения к делу.
Танкадо посмеялся над нами, - сказал Стратмор. - Вы должны отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - напомнила Сьюзан. Стратмор отсутствующе смотрел на стену. - Коммандер. Выключите .
Эта абракадабра представляла собой зашифрованный текст: за группами букв и цифр прятались слова. Задача дешифровщиков состояла в том, чтобы, изучив его, получить оригинальный, или так называемый открытый, текст. АНБ пригласило Беккера, потому что имелось подозрение, что оригинал был написан на мандаринском диалекте китайского языка, и ему предстояло переводить иероглифы по мере их дешифровки. В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами.
Офицер был поражен этим открытием. - Кольцо? - Он вдруг забеспокоился. Вгляделся в полоску на пальце и пристыжено покраснел.