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The Knights Templar were the elite fighting force of their day, highly trained, well-equipped and highly motivated; one of the tenets of their religious order was that they were forbidden from retreating in battle, unless outnumbered three to one, and even then only by order of their commander, or if the Templar flag went down. Not all Knights Templar were warriors. The mission of most of the members was one of support — to acquire resources which could be used to fund and equip the small percentage of members who were fighting on the front lines.
There were actually three classes within the orders. The highest class was the knight. When a candidate was sworn into the order, they made the knight a monk. They wore white robes. The knights could hold no property and receive no private letters. He could not be married or betrothed and cannot have any vow in any other Order. He could not have debt more than he could pay, and no infirmities.
The Templar priest class was similar to the modern day military chaplain. Wearing green robes, they conducted religious services, led prayers, and were assigned record keeping and letter writing. They always wore gloves, unless they were giving Holy Communion.
The mounted men-at-arms represented the most common class, and they were called "brothers". They were usually assigned two horses each and held many positions, including guard, steward, squire or other support vocations. As the main support staff, they wore black or brown robes and were partially garbed in chain mail or plate mail.
The armor was not as complete as the knights. Because of this infrastructure, the warriors were well-trained and very well armed. Even their horses were trained to fight in combat, fully armored. The Templars were also shrewd tacticians, following the dream of Saint Bernard who had declared that a small force, under the right conditions, could defeat a much larger enemy.
One of the key battles in which this was demonstrated was in , at the Battle of Montgisard. The famous Muslim military leader Saladin was attempting to push toward Jerusalem from the south, with a force of 26, soldiers. He had pinned the forces of Jerusalem's King Baldwin IV , about knights and their supporters, near the coast, at Ascalon.
Eighty Templar knights and their own entourage attempted to reinforce. They met Saladin's troops at Gaza , but were considered too small a force to be worth fighting, so Saladin turned his back on them and headed with his army towards Jerusalem.
Once Saladin and his army had moved on, the Templars were able to join King Baldwin's forces, and together they proceeded north along the coast. Saladin had made a key mistake at that point — instead of keeping his forces together, he permitted his army to temporarily spread out and pillage various villages on their way to Jerusalem.
The Templars took advantage of this low state of readiness to launch a surprise ambush directly against Saladin and his bodyguard, at Montgisard near Ramla. Saladin's army was spread too thin to adequately defend themselves, and he and his forces were forced to fight a losing battle as they retreated back to the south, ending up with only a tenth of their original number. The battle was not the final one with Saladin, but it bought a year of peace for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the victory became a heroic legend.
Another key tactic of the Templars was that of the "squadron charge". A small group of knights and their heavily armed warhorses would gather into a tight unit which would gallop full speed at the enemy lines, with a determination and force of will that made it clear that they would rather commit suicide than fall back. This terrifying onslaught would frequently have the desired result of breaking a hole in the enemy lines, thereby giving the other Crusader forces an advantage.
The Templars, though relatively small in number, routinely joined other armies in key battles. They would be the force that would ram through the enemy's front lines at the beginning of a battle, or the fighters that would protect the army from the rear. Though initially an Order of poor monks, the official papal sanction made the Knights Templar a charity across Europe. Further resources came in when members joined the Order, as they had to take oaths of poverty , and therefore often donated large amounts of their original cash or property to the Order.
Additional revenue came from business dealings. Since the monks themselves were sworn to poverty, but had the strength of a large and trusted international infrastructure behind them, nobles would occasionally use them as a kind of bank or power of attorney. If a noble wished to join the Crusades, this might entail an absence of years from their home.
So some nobles would place all of their wealth and businesses under the control of Templars, to safeguard it for them until their return. The Order's financial power became substantial, and the majority of the Order's infrastructure was devoted not to combat, but to economic pursuits.
By , the Order's original mission of guarding pilgrims had changed into a mission of guarding their valuables through an innovative way of issuing letters of credit, an early precursor of modern banking. Pilgrims would visit a Templar house in their home country, depositing their deeds and valuables.
The Templars would then give them a letter which would describe their holdings. Modern scholars have stated that the letters were encrypted with a cipher alphabet based on a Maltese Cross ; however there is some disagreement on this, and it is possible that the code system was introduced later, and not something used by the medieval Templars themselves. This kept the pilgrims safe since they were not carrying valuables, and further increased the power of the Templars.
The Knights' involvement in banking grew over time into a new basis for money , as Templars became increasingly involved in banking activities.
One indication of their powerful political connections is that the Templars' involvement in usury did not lead to more controversy within the Order and the church at large. Officially the idea of lending money in return for interest was forbidden by the church, but the Order sidestepped this with clever loopholes, such as a stipulation that the Templars retained the rights to the production of mortgaged property.
Or as one Templar researcher put it, "Since they weren't allowed to charge interest, they charged rent instead. Their holdings were necessary to support their campaigns; in , a Burgundian noble required 3 square kilometres of estate to support himself as a knight, and by this had risen to The Order potentially supported up to 4, horses and pack animals at any given time, if provisions of the rule were followed; these horses had extremely high maintenance costs due to the heat in Outremer Crusader states at the Eastern Mediterranean , and had high mortality rates due to both disease and the Turkish bowmen strategy of aiming at a knight's horse rather than the knight himself.
In addition, the high mortality rates of the knights in the East regularly ninety percent in battle, not including wounded resulted in extremely high campaign costs due to the need to recruit and train more knights. In , at the battle of La Forbie , where only thirty-three of knights survived, it is estimated the financial loss was equivalent to one-ninth of the entire Capetian yearly revenue. The Templars' political connections and awareness of the essentially urban and commercial nature of the Outremer communities led the Order to a position of significant power , both in Europe and the Holy Land.
Their success attracted the concern of many other orders, with the two most powerful rivals being the Knights Hospitaller and the Teutonic Knights.
Various nobles also had concerns about the Templars as well, both for financial reasons, and nervousness about an independent army that was able to move freely through all borders. The long-famed military acumen of the Templars began to stumble in the s. On July 4, , came the disastrous Battle of the Horns of Hattin , a turning point in the Crusades. It again involved Saladin, who had been beaten back by the Templars in in the legendary Battle of Montgisard near Tiberias , but this time Saladin was better prepared.
Further, the Grand Master of the Templars was involved in this battle, Gerard de Ridefort , who had just achieved that lifetime position a few years earlier.
He was not known as a good military strategist, and made some deadly errors, such as venturing out with his force of 80 knights without adequate supplies or water, across the arid hill country of Galilee. The Templars were overcome by the heat within a day, and then surrounded and massacred by Saladin's army. Within months Saladin captured Jerusalem.
But in the early s, in a remarkably short and powerfully effective campaign, Richard the Lionheart, King of England and leader of the Third Crusade, together with his allies the Templars, delivered a series of powerful blows against Saladin and recovered much of Christian territory.
In name and number the revived Crusader states were as before, but their outlines were diminished. There was the Kingdom of Jerusalem, though its capital was at Acre, which the Templars made their new headquarters. To the north was the County of Tripoli. But the Muslims retained control of the Syrian coast around Latakia for some time, and so the Principality of Antioch further to the north was now no longer contiguous to the other Crusader states. Nevertheless, the Third Crusade, in which Richard relied heavily on the Templars, had saved the Holy Land for the Christians and went a long way towards restoring Frankish fortunes.
In this he was abetted by the military orders, whose great castles stood like islands of Frankish power amid the Muslim torrent. More than ever the Crusader states were relying on the military orders in their castles and on the field of battle, and the power of the orders grew.
In fact at no point in their history would the Templars be more powerful than in the century to come. But after the Siege of Acre in , the Templars were forced to relocate their headquarters to the island of Cyprus. Jacques de Molay , who was to be the last of the Order's Grand Masters, took office around One of his first tasks was to tour across Europe, to raise support for the Order and try to organise another Crusade. Charles II of Naples and Edward I also pledged varying types of support, either continuing to exempt the Templars from taxes, or pledging future support towards building a new army.
In or , the military orders the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller and their leaders, including Jacques de Molay , Otton de Grandson and the Great Master of the Hospitallers, briefly campaigned in Armenia, in order to fight off an invasion by the Mamluks. They were not successful and soon the fortress of Roche-Guillaume in the Belen Pass , the last Templar stronghold in Antioch, was lost to the Muslims. In , the Templars, along with the Knights Hospitaller and forces from Cyprus attempted to retake the coastal city of Tortosa.
They were able to take the island of Arwad , near Tortosa, but lost it soon after. With the loss of Arwad, the Crusaders had lost their last foothold in the Holy Land. Though they still had a base of operations in Cyprus, and controlled considerable financial resources, the Order of the Templars became an Order without a clear purpose or support, but which still had enormous financial power.
This unstable situation contributed to their downfall. King Philip had other reasons to mistrust the Templars, as the organization had declared its desire to form its own state, similar to how the Teutonic Knights had founded Prussia. The Templars' preferred location for this was in the Languedoc of southeastern France, [ citation needed ] but they had also made a plan for the island of Cyprus.
In , the Templars had supported a coup on that island, which had forced King Henry II of Cyprus to abdicate his throne in favor of his brother, Amalric of Tyre. This probably made Philip particularly uneasy, since just a few years earlier he had inherited land in the region of Champagne, France , which was the Templars' headquarters.
The Templars were already a "state within a state", were institutionally wealthy, paid no taxes, and had a large standing army which by papal decree could move freely through all European borders. However, this army no longer had a presence in the Holy Land, leaving it with no battlefield. These factors, plus the fact that Philip had inherited an impoverished kingdom from his father and was already deeply in debt to the Templars, were probably what led to his actions.
It seems that, with the "discovery" and repression of the "Templars' heresy," the Capetian monarchy claimed for itself the mystic foundations of the papal theocracy. The Temple case was the last step of a process of appropriating these foundations, which had begun with the Franco-papal rift at the time of Boniface VIII. At dawn on Friday, October 13, , scores of French Templars were simultaneously arrested by agents of King Philip, later to be tortured in locations such as the tower at Chinon , into admitting heresy and other sacrilegious offenses in the Order.
Then they were put to death. There were five initial charges lodged against the Templars. The first was the renouncement and spitting on the cross during initiation into the Order.
The second was the stripping of the man to be initiated and the thrice kissing of that man by the preceptor on the navel, posteriors and the mouth.
Today they still are one of the most fascinating, even mysterious chapters of medieval times. Founded during the High Middle Ages after the First Crusade to help protect Christian pilgrims, the organization lasted for nearly two centuries and had a great impact in the then know world for some of their innovations and the impact they had then on the fringes of the Christian world. The order was created in France and officially endorsed by Roman Catholic Church around It rose to become a favored charity throughout Christendom, and grew rapidly in membership and power. A military order of warrior monks, the Templar Knights in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross , were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. Non-combatant members of the Order managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom , innovating financial techniques that were an early form of banking , and building fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land.
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The Knights Templar - The History and Myth of the Legendary Miitary Order by Sean Martin (- dokument [*.pdf] Safad Capernaum at the turn of the Thirteenth Century,The Other Military Orders, Military Tactics,The Temple.
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By Philip Pullella. The seal of the Vatican secret archives is shown on a replica document in which Pope Clement V absolved the Knights Templar of charges of heresy, in Rome October 9, A reproduction of the Latin-language minutes of trials against the Knights Templar in , lost until its rediscovery in , is being published by the Vatican Secret Archives at the end October. The documents, a book and parchments, costs 5, euros and its numbered copies are destined for top libraries and medieval scholars.
They were recognized in by the papal bull Omne datum optimum. The Templars became a favored charity throughout Christendom , and grew rapidly in membership and power. They were prominent in Christian finance.
The Knights Templar were the elite fighting force of their day, highly trained, well-equipped and highly motivated; one of the tenets of their religious order was that they were forbidden from retreating in battle, unless outnumbered three to one, and even then only by order of their commander, or if the Templar flag went down. Not all Knights Templar were warriors. The mission of most of the members was one of support — to acquire resources which could be used to fund and equip the small percentage of members who were fighting on the front lines. There were actually three classes within the orders. The highest class was the knight. When a candidate was sworn into the order, they made the knight a monk.
Order by:. Available to:. Roman Trade Token? Detector Find. Edited by George Holmes. Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks; Covering a thousand years of history.
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Никакого различия. - Мы погибли, - прошептала Мидж. - Подождите, - сказала Сьюзан. - Прочитайте еще. Соши прочитала снова: - …Искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Двести тридцать восемь? - воскликнула Сьюзан. - Разве мы не знаем, что в хиросимской бомбе был другой изотоп урана.
Вы делали ему искусственное дыхание. На лице старика появилось виноватое выражение. - Увы, я не знаю, как это делается. Я вызвал скорую. Беккер вспомнил синеватый шрам на груди Танкадо.
После вас, Сью, - сказал. ГЛАВА 41 В кладовке третьего этажа отеля Альфонсо XIII на полу без сознания лежала горничная.
У него есть охрана. - В общем-то. - Он прячется в укрытии. Стратмор пожал плечами.
КОМИНТ засек лишь исходящую почту. В данный момент мы ничего не знаем про Северную Дакоту, кроме анонимного адреса. - Возможно, это приманка, - предположила Сьюзан. Стратмор вскинул брови.
Интуиция? - с вызовом проговорил. Не нужно интуиции, чтобы понять: никакая это не диагностика. Он решительно подошел к терминалу и запустил весь набор программ системных оценок ТРАНСТЕКСТА.
- Еще чуточку. Сьюзан удалось протиснуть в щель плечо. Теперь ей стало удобнее толкать. Створки давили на плечо с неимоверной силой.
Самый гнусный Веллингтон из всех, что мне доводилось пробовать. Самая грязная ванна, какую мне доводилось видеть. И самый мерзкий пляж, покрытый острыми камнями. Этого и ждут от меня читатели. Больные на соседних койках начали приподниматься, чтобы разглядеть, что происходит.
Коммандер шел в Третий узел - к Сьюзан. К своему будущему. Шифровалка снова купалась в ярких огнях. Внизу фреон протекал сквозь дымящийся ТРАНСТЕКСТ, как обогащенная кислородом кровь. Стратмор знал, что охладителю потребуется несколько минут, чтобы достичь нижней части корпуса и не дать воспламениться расположенным там процессорам.
- Поэтому все его последователи, достойные этого названия, соорудили себе точно такие. Беккер долго молчал.
После чего вошел в номер и включил свет. Немец не ожидал такого оборота. - Wasmachst… - Помолчите! - Беккер перешел на английский.
Невзламываемый шифр. Но это полный абсурд. Неужели Хейл никогда не слышал о принципе Бергофского. - Вот что нам надо сделать.
Лейтенант листал паспорт умершего. - Я бы предпочел, чтобы вы ни к чему не прикасались, - попросил. Ничего не трогайте.
И вы хотите его упустить. - Следи за мной, - холодно парировал Стратмор.
Себе Стратмор купил Скайпейджер, который запрограммировал на ту же частоту. Начиная с этого момента его связь с Халохотом стала не только мгновенной, но и абсолютно неотслеживаемой. Первое послание, которое он отправил Халохоту, не оставляло места сомнениям, тем более что они это уже обсуждали: убить Энсея Танкадо и захватить пароль.
Набирая скорость, оно столкнуло в сторону Пежо-504, отбросив его на газон разделительной полосы. Беккер миновал указатель Центр Севильи - 2 км. Если бы ему удалось затеряться в центральной части города, у него был бы шанс спастись. Спидометр показывал 60 миль в час. До поворота еще минуты две.
ВЫ УВЕРЕНЫ. Он снова ответил Да. Мгновение спустя компьютер подал звуковой сигнал.
- Сьюзан не знала, как .
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