File Name: the evolution and characteristics of the information age .zip
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The Information Age also known as the Computer Age , Digital Age , or New Media Age is a historical period that began in the midth century, characterized by a rapid epochal shift from the traditional industry established by the Industrial Revolution to an economy primarily based upon information technology.
According to the United Nations Public Administration Network , the Information Age was formed by capitalizing on computer microminiaturization advances,  which would lead to modernized information and to communication processes upon broader usage within society becoming the driving force of social evolution.
Library expansion was calculated in by Fremont Rider to double in capacity every 16 years were sufficient space made available. Rider did not foresee, however, the digital technology that would follow decades later to replace analog microform with digital imaging , storage , and transmission media , whereby vast increases in the rapidity of information growth would be made possible through automated , potentially- lossless digital technologies.
Accordingly, Moore's law , formulated around , would calculate that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. By the early s, along with improvements in computing power , the proliferation of the smaller and less expensive personal computers allowed for immediate access to information and the ability to share and store such for increasing numbers of workers.
Connectivity between computers within organizations enabled employees at different levels to access greater amounts of information. The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2. The amount of digital data stored appears to be growing approx.
As such, Kryder's law prescribes that the amount of storage space available appears to be growing approximately exponentially. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was exabytes of optimally compressed information in ; optimally compressed exabytes in ; 1.
The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was petabytes of optimally compressed information in ; petabytes in ; 2. The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew from 3. In terms of capacity, there are two measures of importance: the number of operations a system can perform and the amount of information that can be stored.
There are different conceptualizations of the Information Age. Some focus on the evolution of information over the ages, distinguishing between the Primary Information Age and the Secondary Information Age. Information in the Primary Information age was handled by newspapers , radio and television.
The Secondary Information Age was developed by the Internet , satellite televisions and mobile phones. Others classify it in terms of the well-established Schumpeterian long waves or Kondratiev waves. Here authors distinguish three different long-term meta paradigms , each with different long waves.
The first focused on the transformation of material, including stone , bronze , and iron. The second, often referred to as industrial revolution , was dedicated to the transformation of energy, including water , steam , electric , and combustion power. Finally, the most recent metaparadigm aims at transforming information. It started out with the proliferation of communication and stored data and has now entered the age of algorithms , which aims at creating automated processes to convert the existing information into actionable knowledge.
Eventually, Information and communication technology ICT —i. The Information Age has affected the workforce in several ways, such as compelling workers to compete in a global job market. One of the most evident concerns is the replacement of human labor by computers that can do their jobs faster and more effectively, thus creating a situation in which individuals who perform tasks that can easily be automated are forced to find employment where their labor is not as disposable.
Thus, individuals who lose their jobs may be pressed to move up into joining "mind workers" e. Along with automation, jobs traditionally associated with the middle class e. For example, workers in the United States were once well paid in comparison to those in other countries.
With the advent of the Information Age and improvements in communication, this is no longer the case, as workers must now compete in a global job market , whereby wages are less dependent on the success or failure of individual economies.
In effectuating a globalized workforce , the internet has just as well allowed for increased opportunity in developing countries , making it possible for workers in such places to provide in-person services, therefore competing directly with their counterparts in other nations.
This competitive advantage translates into increased opportunities and higher wages. The Information Age has affected the workforce in that automation and computerization have resulted in higher productivity coupled with net job loss in manufacturing. Although it initially appeared that job loss in the industrial sector might be partially offset by the rapid growth of jobs in information technology , the recession of March foreshadowed a sharp drop in the number of jobs in the sector.
This pattern of decrease in jobs would continue until ,  and data has shown that, overall, technology creates more jobs than it destroys even in the short run. Industry has become more information-intensive while less labor - and capital-intensive.
This has left important implications for the workforce , as workers have become increasingly productive as the value of their labor decreases. For the system of capitalism itself, the value of labor decreases, the value of capital increases. In the classical model , investments in human and financial capital are important predictors of the performance of a new venture. The Information Age was enabled by technology developed in the Digital Revolution , which was itself enabled by building on the developments of the Technological Revolution.
The onset of the Information Age can be associated with the development of transistor technology. This was a breakthrough that laid the foundations for modern technology. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in Before the advent of electronics , mechanical computers , like the Analytical Engine in , were designed to provide routine mathematical calculation and simple decision-making capabilities.
The invention of the transistor enabled the era of mainframe computers s—s , typified by the IBM These large, room-sized computers provided data calculation and manipulation that was much faster than humanly possible, but were expensive to buy and maintain, so were initially limited to a few scientific institutions, large corporations, and government agencies. Along with electronic arcade machines and home video game consoles in the s, the development of personal computers like the Commodore PET and Apple II both in gave individuals access to the computer.
But data sharing between individual computers was either non-existent or largely manual , at first using punched cards and magnetic tape , and later floppy disks. The first developments for storing data were initially based on photographs, starting with microphotography in and then microform in the s, with the ability to store documents on film, making them much more compact.
Early information theory and Hamming codes were developed about , but awaited technical innovations in data transmission and storage to be put to full use.
Magnetic-core memory was developed from the research of Frederick W. Viehe in and An Wang at Harvard University in While cables transmitting digital data connected computer terminals and peripherals to mainframes were common, and special message-sharing systems leading to email were first developed in the s, independent computer-to-computer networking began with ARPANET in This expanded to become the Internet coined in , and then the World Wide Web in During the s—s, laptops were developed as a form of portable computer, and personal digital assistants PDAs could be used while standing or walking.
Pagers , widely used by the s, were largely replaced by mobile phones beginning in the late s, providing mobile networking features to some computers. Now commonplace, this technology is extended to digital cameras and other wearable devices. Starting in the late s, tablets and then smartphones combined and extended these abilities of computing, mobility, and information sharing.
Electronic paper , which has origins in the s, allows digital information to appear as paper documents. Optical communication has played an important role in communication networks. In , Bram van Heel demonstrated image transmission through bundles of optical fibers with a transparent cladding.
Metal—oxide—semiconductor MOS image sensors , which first began appearing in the late s, led to the transition from analog to digital imaging , and from analog to digital cameras , during the s—s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historical period. For the album by dead prez, see Information Age album. For the four-piece American band, see The Digital Age. By technological eras. By historical regions. By type of technology. History of agriculture History of biotechnology History of communication History of computer hardware History of electrical engineering History of manufacturing History of materials science History of measurement History of medicine History of nuclear technology History of transport.
Technology timelines. Timeline of historic inventions Complete list by category. Article indices. Outline of technology Outline of prehistoric technology.
Main articles: Data storage and Computer data storage. Main article: Information industry. Further information: Semiconductor device. Main articles: Computer and History of computers. Further information: Integrated circuit , Invention of the integrated circuit , Microprocessor , and Moore's law. Further information: History of telecommunications , Computer memory , Computer data storage , Data compression , Internet access , and Social media.
Further information: Optical communication , Image sensor , and Optical fiber. February 23, Oxford: Blackwell. Retrieved 18 April The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library. New York City: Hadham Press. Retrieved Moore also affirmed he never said transistor count would double every 18 months, as is commonly said. Initially, he said transistors on a chip would double every year. He then recalibrated it to every two years in David House, an Intel executive at the time, noted that the changes would cause computer performance to double every 18 months.
Retrieved on 9 June Supporting online material for the world's technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute infrormation. Bibcode : Sci View multimedia content. Archived from the original on 16 September Retrieved 9 June Social Media Culture.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. The Information Age: Evolution or Revolution? Since all of these involve the accumulation, manipulation, and retrieval of data by computerized electronic devices and their appli- cation to many facets of human life, it is no wonder that the headlines shout that computer developments are transforming industry and society to produce a new "Information Age. After all, most technologies are evolutionary in the sense that they derive from prior developments.
Search this site. A Grammar of Present Day French: w. Abolition PDF. Absolute Promethea Vol.
Language: English Spanish French. The first technological revolutions go all the way back to the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, when the transformation of material was the driving force in the Schumpeterian process of creative destruction. The current metaparadigm focuses on the transformation of information. Every 2. The current age focuses on algorithms that automate the conversion of data into actionable knowledge.
Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience. We are in the midst of the "Information Age. So, where will it all lead and why should we care? And what exactly is the Information Age anyway?
Since the s, the proliferation of the internet and its associated economic, social, and technological trends have had a far greater impact on our world than the industrial age of the past. These changes have led the current period of human history to be called the Information Age, similar to how the invention of the steam engine and the mechanization of human labor was the characteristic of the Industrial Age. The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century brought about fundamental changes in how societies were organized and how wars were fought. Better transport networks, such as railroads and steamships, meant that capital, workers, and markets were all linked together at the national level, and the nation-state became the fundamental organizing unit of the global order. The widespread adoption of the internet has connected the world together and blurred the lines between domestic and international matters.
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Characteristics and Challenges of the Digital Economy. 9. 3. development priority for the information age, and many of these countries assume that the process of technological evolution and its spillover (from elizabethsid.org4india.com/intellectual/patent/elizabethsid.org) elizabethsid.orgJay L. 16.06.2021 at 00:15
briefly discusses features and characteristics of information age phenomena. 2 communication system, the information age societal evolution is marked by the.