File Name: take back the light a feminist reclamation of spirituality and religion .zip
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Following this, it takes into account the third-wave Feminism of the s and its radical re-elaboration of the self: from Cyberfeminism and its revisitation of technology, to the artistic insights offered, on the one side, by critical techno-orientalist readings of the futures, and on the other, by the political and social articulations of Afrofuturism and Chicanafuturism.
Lastly, this genealogy accesses the ways contemporary female artists are dealing with gender, social media and the notion of embodiment, touching upon elements that will become of key importance in fourth-wave Feminism.
This article is published as part of a collection dedicated to multi- and interdisciplinary perspectives on gender studies. In this endeavour to reassemble a feminist genealogy of the posthuman in the arts, this article will specifically focus on the visual works conceived by female artists after the rise of what has been retrospectively defined as first-wave Feminism, which took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Starting with the main avant-garde movements of the first half of the twentieth century—specifically, Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism—this genealogy will analyse the second-wave Feminism of the sixties and seventies, with its integral exploration of the body highlighted by performance art.
Subsequently, this article will take into account the third-wave Feminism of the nineties and its radical re-elaboration of the self: from Cyberfeminism and its revisitation of technology, to the artistic insights offered, on the one hand, by critical techno-orientalist readings of the futures, and, on the other, by the political and social articulations of Afrofuturism and Chicanafuturism.
Finally, it will access the ways contemporary female artists are dealing with gender, social media and the notion of embodiment, touching upon elements that will become of key importance in fourth-wave Feminism. The ways in which female artists have been addressing the notion of human embodiments and gender identities throughout spaces and times will offer valuable insights into the possibilities inscribed in the shaping of our posthuman futures. In the posthuman Footnote 2 era, the decision to strictly focus on works produced by self-identified female artists could be criticized as essentialist, for it suggests the possibility of pursuing an analysis based on a set of bio-cultural characteristics.
I shall thus clarify that such a move is currently needed for strategic reasons, to re-establish an inclusive genealogy of the posthuman itself. Posthumanism is becoming a highly fashionable trend. In line with a posthumanist methodology, this genealogy wishes to maintain a comprehensive and inclusive way of recognizing the large variety of artists who have contributed to the development of Posthuman Studies.
Given such premises, I will adopt a strategic essentialist standpoint Spivak, to emphasize the centrality of female artists in the development of posthuman aesthetics.
And still, it is important to remark that there is no specific type of woman who can symbolically represent every woman ever born, but there are women in the plural form with different social and individual characteristics. Footnote 3 In the following, I should mention that I will only address artists who were born after the first wave of Feminism, although not all of them defined themselves as feminist.
From a queer perspective, it shall be noted that a considerable number of them shared an open view on sexuality, which did not fit into heterosexual normativity. Another important aspect to highlight is that this genealogy will focus only on the visual arts, not including artists who have expressed posthuman intentions in other forms, such as science fiction that is, Octavia Butler, Marge Piercy and Kathy Acker , electronic music such as Pauline Oliveros, Laurie Anderson and Pamela Z or dance Pina Bausch, Anna Halprin and Tai Lihua, among others.
There are different reasons why I have chosen this type of analysis. Visual culture has played an increasing role in the development of Western civilization, becoming central in the elaboration of Modernity, as Foucault pointed out in his articulation of Panopticism; it has replaced logocentrism, turning into a distinctive feature of Postmodernism, to the extent that Baudrillard saw the simulacrum not as a copy of the real, but as a reality of its own, the hyperreal.
Cybernetics has only augmented the power of representation. Programmers have developed codes that mostly relate to one sense, the sight, leaving other senses such as taste, smell and, to a lesser extent, touch, in a marginal position.
Our posthuman present is visual, interactive and linkable; the power of representation in knowledge production is becoming less and less innocent, if it has ever been. Footnote 4. Focusing now on the artists, it is worth explaining why I will not be able to offer each of them the space they deserve. But science and technology are first imagined, before they are performed. Knowledge is limited. Following, I will first focus on paintings and collages representative of some of the main avant-garde movements of the first half of the XX century; I will then move on to consider the visual power of documented performances within the rise of second-wave Feminism.
Lastly, following third-wave Feminism, I will present different types of visual arts in the contemporary art scene, stressing their hybrid and multimedia approaches that will give rise to fourth-wave Feminism. To reassemble a map of posthuman grandmotherhood, I will focus on the three main avant-garde movements that arose in Europe at the beginning of the XX century: Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism.
There are many reasons why Futurism should be listed in this genealogy, including the fact that it has been regarded as one of its sources by Transhumanism, especially in Europe and, particularly, in Italy. Futurism was about dynamism; its artistic research was not aimed to express objects in movement, but movement itself, creating an aesthetic of simultaneity.
To generate a space for dynamic imagination, Futurism wished to pose a symbolic break from the past. This is one of the crucial differences with Posthumanism, which, to fully embrace the future, does not disregard the past.
On the contrary, Posthumanism draws on many different sources, histories and herstories, Footnote 7 in an academic attempt of inclusiveness that opens to other species and hypothetical life forms: from non-human animals to artificial intelligence, from aliens to the possibilities related to the physic notion of a multiverse.
Another important difference between Futurism and Posthumanism regards life. In its attempt to decentre the human from the centre of the discourse, Posthumanism opens to environmentalism and animal rights; if it embraces technology as essentially human Gehlen, ; Stiegler, , it still warns about its destructive side, already experienced through many catastrophes, such as the drop of the atomic bomb or the ecological impact of industrialization.
Footnote 9 Despite of the chauvinist and contradictory value of the futurist discourse, Footnote 10 a high number of female artists joined the movement, as an act of challenge and criticism towards the female stereotypes of self-denial and sacrifice theorized hitherto for women.
Natalia Goncharova Footnote 11 was not only one of the main contributors to Russian Futurism, but also one of the founders of Rayonism, a style of abstract art that she developed in with her companion, painter Mikhail Larionov — , after hearing a series of lectures about Futurism by Marinetti.
Rayonism focussed on representing the rays of light reflected from objects, rather than objects themselves, in a pre-intuition of the central role of light in virtual reality and the consequent electrical infrastructure of cyberspace. Our other posthuman futurist grandmother is Olga Biglieri Scurto, Barbara, Footnote 12 who I will present not only for her futuristic paintings and attitude she became a patented pilot at only 18 years of age, before she even encountered Futurism , but also for the fascinating twist in her own poetics.
If Futurism sustained the war and the Fascist drive to colonization, Dada arose at the outbreak of War World I as a cultural movement of protest against such expansionist policies. Footnote 13 Before presenting our dada grandmothers, I would like to mention the prosthetic work of US artist Anna Coleman Ladd — , who produced masks of thin copper for soldiers who were disfigured in World War I; such masks were sculpted and painted to resemble the portraits of the soldiers before their disfigurement.
The connection between war mutilations and dada aesthetics has been widely remarked. Men have been mistaken for machines. More than ludditism, what characterized Dadaism was a cynical approach towards ideas of progress and control. Dada artists did not reject the machine, they actually embedded the mechanic in their aesthetics.
Some of them, such as Marcel Duchamp — and Francis Picabia — , went so far as to develop a dada machine art, but the specificity of such machines can be found in their futility and nonsense, in a interpretation of the new that radically differed from Futurism: the advances of technology were recognized by Dadaism as part of a larger reality, chaotic and existentially unstable, anticipating the uncanny feelings often associated with cyborgism.
Footnote The dada roots of the posthuman are traceable not only in its aesthetics, but also, specifically, in the use of techniques such as the collage, as presented, and the assemblage, that is, the artistic process of putting together found objects in two or three-dimensional compositions, which found in dada artist Elsa Von Freytag-Loringhoven — and in sculptor Louise Nevelson — some of its pioneers.
Posthumanism also shares with Dadaism the acceptance of the nonsense, which is embedded in its own meta-narratives: in its attempt to decentre the human, Posthumanism is still thought and theorized by humans, in a human-centric system of signs. Surrealism spread internationally from the s onward, becoming one of the most influential movements of the period.
It developed out of Dadaism, and it elaborated the nonsense in evocative juxtapositions and non-sequiturs. On the footsteps of Freud, Surrealism gave full recognition to the unconscious, dream symbolism and free associations. In its attempts of avoiding dualisms, Posthumanism owes to Surrealism the retrieving of such aspects of life: the dream world can offer a unique space of visualization; the possibilities opened by the future are already embedded in the mystery of the present; the conscious becomes the unconscious, in a fluid view from which the field of posthuman psychology is currently emerging.
Surrealism also brought attention to the environment, which, as previously stated, characterizes critical Posthumanism. Such awareness merged, for instance, in the paintings of US artists Katherine Linn Sage — , whose large, surreal sights recall futuristic landscapes and science fiction movies. In this section, I would also like to mention Lois Mailou Jones — Born in the United States, Jones spent a long time in Paris.
Two other artists to consider are Argentinian-born artist Leonor Fini — , and Mexican painter Frida Kahlo — ; interestingly enough, neither of these artists claimed an affiliation to the surrealist movement, even if their works have been labelled as such.
I have decided to focus on Fini not only for the excellence of her work, but also for her intriguing personality, and, in particular, for her taste of the masquerade, which actually derived from a curious biographical experience. When Leonor was a child, after her parents had divorced, her father tried on various occasions to kidnap her, so her mother ingeniously started to disguised her as a boy to hide her identity.
In her reiterated act of cross-dressing, Leonor fully experienced not only the social mimicry of gender performativity Butler, , but also its fascinating theatrical side. The idea of metamorphosis became central in her work, which featured female sphinxes, androgynous figures, cats and powerful women see Figs.
This figure is not covered by the CC-BY 4. Frida Kahlo could be included in such genealogy for many different reasons, but I will focus on a specific aspect of her work, which is rarely debated in enthusiastic transhuman accounts of techno-bodies: pain.
Frida contracted polio at age 6; when she was 18 she almost died in a tragic bus accident, her body was seriously damaged and she never fully recovered. Her condition led to more than 30 surgeries, to the impossibility of a healthy pregnancy, with consequent miscarriages and therapeutic abortions; to the amputation of three toes and, some years later, of her right leg to the knee. Her paintings depict a complex symbolism, where self-portraits and autobiographical references cohabit with pre-Columbian gods, Christian imagery and animal—human hybrids.
I never painted dreams. After presenting the three main artistic avant-garde movements of the first half of the XX century, in this section I will focus on the artistic scene connected to the second wave of Feminism, which began in the sixties and flourished through the seventies.
The theoretical contribution of Feminism to Posthumanism is crucial. The fact that Feminism brought into question male symbolism as universal has been fundamental to the posthuman effort of decentring the human and its anthropocentric logos from the centre of the discourse. Since many of the artists of the time shared the postmodern criticism of strong ideologies and distantiated themselves from strict labels, in this section I will present our posthuman feminist mothers by subject of interest.
In the sixties, US artist Hannah Wilke — developed her vaginal imagery, which included tiny vulval sculptures made of chewing gum and then stuck to her naked body, achieving a grotesque confusion of lines between the flesh and the gums. I travelled so much that I really took the whole planet as a studio. There are some artists whose works are crucial to this genealogy for the challenges they raised to the anthropocentric perception of the human in confronting their own identity.
I would like to mention Japanese-born Yoko Ono b. Ono was part of the Fluxus group, which, inspired by movements such as Dadaism and the Gutai, used an intermedia approach and highlighted the connection between art and everyday objects, focussing more on the artistic process than on the final product itself. The minimal intervention of her performances contrasts with the monumental alterations of some of her male contemporaries, such as Robert Smithson — , whose work depended on heavy machinery to be completed.
The human becomes an ephemeral concept, in an organic vision of life as a force constantly shaping and evolving. Yayoi Kusama will bridge us to the next section on technology. Kusama has developed through her life performances and environmental installations characterized by obsessive repetitions and accumulation, based on dreams and hallucinations occurring since her childhood.
Note : This image was in the public domain at the time of publication. Let me conclude this section by mentioning the work of other artists who, in different ways, elaborated on the interaction between humanity and technology.
First, there is the work of Japanese artist Atsuko Tanaka — German artist Rebecca Horn b. Before passing to the third and final part of this genealogy, I would like to pay homage to many more artists who have contributed to the posthuman imaginary, among others: Joan Jonas b.
The early nineties marked the birth of Cyberfeminism. The tremendous possibilities opened by virtual reality, which included computer-simulated environments, where to experience different gender identities whose effects actually proved to be less revolutionary than expected Footnote 23 were theoretically inscribed within CyberFeminism, which stressed multiplicity, nomadicity and connectivity. Its practices were participatory and decentred; its goals were mainly concerned with making the digital realm a woman-friendly space, which would not perpetuate patriarchal agendas.
Cyberfeminism represents an important antecedent of Posthumanism. The historical and herstorical passage between the human and the posthuman is the cyborg.
At the dawn of the Trump administration, witches were suddenly everywhere in the US. Neo-pagans used blogs and social media to circulate popular rituals for hexing Brock Turner who served less than three months in jail after he was convicted of sexual assualt , the supreme court justice Brett Kavanaugh accused of sexual assault, which he denies , and Donald Trump himself. The Trump curse was enacted by thousands of people, including the singer Lana Del Rey. In a way, this was tradition. The witch has always been the feminist monster of choice. They also released hundreds of live mice into Madison Square Garden during a bridal fair. Boston women hexed bars.
Through the framework of postcolonial and feminist theory, this article interprets Esther in light of her marginalised identity. Her position as a Jewish woman in diaspora who must hide her ethnicity and assimilate into Persian culture reveals parallels to contemporary Asian women in Western diaspora, due to perpetuated stereotypes of passiveness and submission, and the model minority myth associated with Asian immigration. If we read the text in light of her marginalisation, we can highlight the racial and gendered oppression within the existing power structures, as well as the levels of privilege at work within the character dynamics. Esther serves as an example of the potential that lies in recognising positions of privilege, the implications of identity, and understanding different forms of resistance in order to form a liberative theology. By situating Esther within intersectional and interdisciplinary theory, her status as a postcolonial feminist icon emerges.
Toward the work of political re unification of the genders in black communities today, black men must acknowledge and begin to confront the existence of sexism in black liberation struggle as one of the chief obstacles empeding its advancement. Making womanist space for black men to participate in allied relation to feminist movement to oppose the opression of women means black men going against the grain of the racist and sexist mythology of black manhood and masculinity in the U. Lemons, G. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback.
This work of feminist theology in regards to Judaism, also contextualizes the other goals of this movement, to re frame historical texts and how they are being taught. It is in addition to how God is being viewed but also the role of women historically and how they are being treated today in a new feminist light. Feminist philosophy of religion is a more recent development within Western philosophy that poses feminist questions about religious texts, traditions, and practices, often with the aim of critiquing, redefining, or reconstructing the entire field in light of gender studies. The feminist perspective is considered to be another conflict theory view that focuses specifically on gender inequality.
This chapter interrogates the interplay between globalization, religion, and women in the East African context, and seeks to respond to the following questions: What aspects of globalization affect the spaces where women operate? How has globalization affected gender and family relations? How can justice-seeking feminist theological discourse respond to the challenges of globalization? The chapter begins by defining East Africa; analysing the religio-cultural context that has been shaped by the indigenous African worldview, Western Christianity, colonialism, and the current globalizing forces; and examining how women and religion have been impacted by these complexities and changes. Thereafter, the experiences of women under globalization are discussed with reference to selected issues such as poverty, economy, employment, environment, health, and education; issues chosen because they are critical to women's well-being.
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The idol embodied in its utter, such as sheds. Your voice, when he was making her crazy, he knew better than that. While she packed up her apartment! It looks like you have something to share. Plus, she caught sight of a distant hillside. There were also the last-minute prizes to be picked up.
Take Back The Light A Feminist Reclamation Of Spirituality And Religion New Feminist. Perspectives is Avaialble in EPUB, MOBI, AZW and PDF eBook Formats.
Philosophical reflection on religion is as old as Greek questions about Hebrew stories. Feminist philosophy of religion is a more recent development within Western philosophy that poses feminist questions about religious texts, traditions, and practices, often with the aim of critiquing, redefining, or reconstructing the entire field in light of gender studies. Feminist philosophy of religion is important to feminist and nonfeminist philosophy alike for providing a critical understanding of various religious concepts, beliefs, and rituals, as well as of religion as a cultural institution that defines, sanctions, and sometimes challenges gender roles and gender-inflected representations. It is equally important for feminist theory, which frequently neglects the academic study of religion, as for analytic philosophy of religion, which seldom takes into account gender or race or class. This entry considers the work of both critique and reconstruction as it has developed in feminist philosophies of religion over the last several decades. In the present situation, most practitioners of feminist philosophy of religion and of feminist theology are agreed that their discipline cannot be limited simply to a sociological assessment or confessional narrative of what a particular religious group believes to be true, without consideration of the difference that gender makes.
Н-но… - Сьюзан запнулась, но тут же продолжила: - Я была уверена, что он блефует. Он действительно это сделал. - Да. Создатель последнего шифра, который никто никогда не взломает. Сьюзан долго молчала. - Но… это значит… Стратмор посмотрел ей прямо в глаза: - Да. Энсей Танкадо только что превратил ТРАНСТЕКСТ в устаревшую рухлядь.
Нет, - сконфуженно ответила. - Ты нашла ключ. Сьюзан покачала головой. Стратмор наморщил лоб и прикусил губу. Мысли его метались.
Стратмор мысленно взвешивал это предложение. Оно было простым и ясным. Сьюзан остается в живых, Цифровая крепость обретает черный ход.
Двадцать миллионов американских долларов. Почти столько же поставил Нуматака. - Двадцать миллионов? - повторил он с притворным ужасом. - Это уму непостижимо.
Его не было видно за корпусом ТРАНСТЕКСТА, но красноватое сияние отражалось от черного кафеля подобно огню, отражающемуся ото льда. Ну давай же, вызови службу безопасности, коммандер.
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Feminist theology is a movement found in several religions, including Sanatan Dharma old form of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , Christianity , Judaism , and New Thought , to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective.Yolanda V. 15.06.2021 at 09:28
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