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Theory Of The Origin Evolution And Nature Of Life Pdf

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The David H. It is in recognition of these broad factors that public engagement materials, events, and contributions to the Human Origins web site are being developed by the Broader Social Impacts Committee BSIC to support the exhibition in the David H. Koch Hall of Human Origins. The committee recognizes the unique opportunity the subject of human origins offers for the exploration of challenging cultural topics, which in turn can inspire greater public interest in, and understanding of, science.

The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

Metrics details. The common thread of evolution runs through all science disciplines, and the concept of evolution enables students to better understand the nature of the universe and our origins.

The course examines basic principles and methods of science by following the concept of evolution from the big bang to the origin and evolution of life. Case studies of leading scientists illustrate how their ideas developed and contributed to the evolution of our understanding of the world.

Evidences for physical, chemical, and biological evolution are explored, and students learn to view the evolution of matter and of ideas as a natural process of change over space and time. Undergraduates enter our General Education science Core courses with many misconceptions about biological evolution and little understanding about the concept of evolution in general. We find that students better comprehend biological evolution when evolution is first presented in its wider context.

The course chronologically explores not only the evolution of the universe, solar system and life on earth, but also the evolution of ideas regarding various realms of the scientific enterprise. The course provides students with an interwoven mosaic about the evolutionary nature of our world and our understanding of that world. It follows the evolution of physical forces and of chemistry beginning with the first seconds of the universe: from the formation of the simplest elements, to more complex elements and molecules, to prebiotic compounds, and ultimately to the molecular diversity and complexity present in living organisms today.

In the process, students learn how science works, how it is used to unravel the mysteries of the universe, and how physics, chemistry, and biology have evolved over time and shaped our worldview. Dowling College is an independent, coeducational college of more than 7, students, approximately 3, of which are undergraduates. Students in all majors complete a Core Curriculum to fulfill General Education requirements.

Over 25 sections of NSC C are offered each year as the course is taken by virtually all Dowling undergraduates, and each section enrolls about 25 students. Most students in the course are non-science majors. Faculty teaching the interdisciplinary NSC Core courses come from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds and must meet the challenge of teaching subject matter that is not in their immediate area of expertise. Most instructors use a traditional lecture approach with visuals, and most ask questions in a Socratic style to foster discussion and motivate student thinking.

Although the course does not have a separately scheduled laboratory, most faculty include laboratories, demonstrations, and collection and analysis of data. A library research writing assignment is required of all students. A composite sample syllabus that lists NSC C course topics as well as suggested laboratories and demonstrations is available in the supplementary materials. A main objective is to impart an integrated overview of science and the concept of evolution.

To achieve this integrated picture, principles of the philosophy of science are first discussed in general terms, and then are illustrated with reference to specific theories that form our contemporary view of how the world works.

Likewise, when discussing specific scientific theories and how they have evolved, reference is made to the philosophical principles that were operative at the time. This bi-directional reinforcement helps to instill both the scientific principles themselves and the methods by which they came about.

The narrative that follows provides a condensed introduction to the course content, describing how the course explores the nature of science, the fundamental makeup of the universe, the way in which these fundamental parts are assembled into the totality of the universe, how life on Earth evolved and fits into the cosmic fabric, and how our ideas about the universe have evolved over time.

A more thorough treatment of the content knowledge can be found in the recommended texts. The grandest story of all encompasses the origin, makeup and evolution of our universe, which includes life. One subplot is a perfect complement to the overarching story—the way that scientists have come to know the universe in all its splendor and complexity.

At our college educators hotly debate how best to deliver general education; we believe that this course hits many of the right notes. It encompasses topics that speak to the fundamental reality of our existence. Furthermore, it stresses the human endeavor of science. These are exactly the kinds of lessons that are important for every college student to embrace; that is, the universe is large, complex, marvelous, and often knowable.

The course emphasizes what we know, how we learned it, and what is left unknown. For students to grasp the concept that scientists have fundamentally explained processes that once seemed unknowable is among the most important messages of this course.

Science is alive and dynamic and the universal unknown is the frontier to which scientists set sail as explorers. We argue that to know the universe, students should know its fundamental composition.

In this unit, we break the universe into its fundamental building blocks. First, we introduce the concept of the smallest piece of matter. But to do so, we do not simply make a list of fundamental particles. Rather, we explore the subplot of discovery. How did humans come to know of the fundamental parts of matter? Matter is not motionless, not frozen in space and time; it moves, sometimes dramatically. So next, we discuss the three laws that govern the motion of matter, courtesy of Isaac Newton.

As such, we spend several lectures on the four fundamental forces, paying particular attention to gravity and electromagnetism. These two forces, along with the strong nuclear force, are essential for understanding the next unit, which covers in part, the life and death of stars. No discussion of the universe can be complete without some understanding of both laws.

The first law of thermodynamics is absolutely essential to make the following point: nothing in the universe is magical; that is, whenever an object emits or utilizes energy, that energy must come from somewhere.

In the next unit, this fundamental concept is used to make an important point about stars—they die. The second law of thermodynamics is no less important. It establishes a sequence of events: order goes to disorder, heat flows from hot to cold bodies, and energy goes from a concentrated form to a less-concentrated form with the release of heat. In other words, the second law dictates the arrow of time.

The universe broken down into matter, force and time with a handful of laws that govern them. To know a thing is to know more than the fundamental building blocks. As such, in this unit we aim to reassemble the universe into a coherent entity made up of fundamental building blocks.

The book we use for the course, The Sciences by Trefil and Hazen , has a fascinating approach that is adopted for the first presentation in this unit. Imagine the first person able to form a question perhaps one of our hominid ancestors emerging from a slumber and looking up at the night sky. In this class, the same question is asked of students, only we permit them to use the basic information learned in the previous unit. Thus follows a remarkable logical sequence: stars emit light; light is electromagnetic energy; stars are not magical, and thus, they must convert some other form of energy into light; stars are not infinite in volume, so they will run out of energy someday; all stars will die; and finally, if all stars die, then all stars were born.

Two questions naturally flow from this discussion:. The answers to these questions are marvelous in their own right, but they are essential to understanding the origin of life itself, for it is in the forge of thermonuclear fusion that the elements of life were generated. By detailing the processes of star birth and death, we construct a panoply of stars: main sequence stars from sun-sized yellow stars to blue giants , red giants, super red giants, white dwarfs, black dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.

As a case in point, we consider the ways that astronomers measure distances to stars. Triangulation, using trigonometric functions, to measure distance works well for stars nearby. The nearest galaxy to us is Andromeda, 2.

Hubble helped us realize the immensity of the universe. Indeed, the arrangement of galaxies in the universe has a large-scale structure in which galaxies come in clusters and groupings. Using light spectroscopy the same technique is performed by students in lab , Hubble discovered that all galaxies are moving away from us; the farther away the faster they move Livio Hubble determined that only universal expansion could explain such a result!

For a second time, Hubble dramatically changed the way we view the universe. The universe is large infinite actually , and surprises seem to be the norm rather than the exception. At this point in the class, we have established how stars form and die, how they are collected into galaxies, how the galaxies are arranged in space and how they are constantly zooming away from each other at an accelerating rate!

Not bad for a unit in a general science class, but the story does not end here. No; remarkably, using particle accelerators, scientists have determined with great precision what the conditions of the universe were like in the first moments after the Big Bang. The stunning energy and expansion of the early universe led to an important phenomenon for understanding the origin of life; that is, rapid expansion prevented the formation of heavier elements through fusion.

The vast majority of matter in the universe is hydrogen, helium and lithium; everything else is rare. But hydrogen, helium and lithium simply will not suffice for life.

To account for life, we need to explain the origin of heavier elements: nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and many others, but especially carbon. Moreover, we need to explain how they got to us here in our solar system. At this point, a review session examines images from the Hubble telescope.

Students marvel at images of planetary nebulae that spew their contents in diametrically opposed jets of gas and at elegant spiral galaxies among the most beautiful objects in the universe. We finish with images of the deep field survey of galaxies. Few images are more stirring—galaxy upon galaxy upon galaxy piled up one after the other to the edges of the universe, each galaxy possessing millions, billions or even trillions of stars.

If a goal of general education is to imbue a sense of place and scale in our students, what could be more effective than a deep understanding of the universe?

On the other hand, it is not our intention to make them feel small and insignificant. We continue to take the wrong lesson from what we are now learning. An astronaut who had taken a tethered spacewalk while on a Gemini flight was recently asked whether the experience had changed him.

The ant, astronomically outnumbered by the grains of sand, overwhelmed by the size of the inhospitable desert, is nevertheless the greater marvel, by far. It is time to take stock of the discovery that life is the most complex thing we know of in the Universe, and, as such, most worthy of our admiration.

Yes, the Universe dwarfs our world in size and immense power. But the Universe of stars, galaxies, and vast gulfs of space is so very, very simple compared to us and our brethren life forms. If we could but learn to look at the Universe with eyes that are blind to power and size, but keen for subtlety and complexity, then our world would outshine a galaxy of stars.

Indeed, we should marvel at the Universe for its majesty, but we must truly be in awe of its greatest achievement—life.

Granting the statement is more metaphor than science, the origin and evolution of life is certainly an achievement worth exploring in a general education science class. Moreover, this course enables us to frame that grand story in the larger physical and chemical evolutionary context in a way that pure biology courses cannot.

Living organisms are made of particles, arranged in atoms to form different elements, which are arranged in a dizzying array of molecules interacting according to their chemical properties.

How then did these chemicals originate and how did they come to be on Earth? The first item that we tackle in this last unit is to define life. Like so much in biology, it is more complex than it seems at first. Trefil and Hazen handle the questions by listing characteristics that most known living organisms share:.

Theory of the Origin, Evolution, and Nature of Life

If a species can develop only from a preexisting species, then how did life originate? Among the many philosophical and religious ideas advanced to answer that question, one of the most popular was the theory of spontaneous generation, according to which, as already mentioned, living organisms could originate from nonliving matter. With the increasing tempo of discovery during the 17th and 18th centuries, however, investigators began to examine more critically the Greek belief that flies and other small animals arose from the mud at the bottom of streams and ponds by spontaneous generation. The Italian physician and poet Francesco Redi was one of the first to question the spontaneous origin of living things. Having observed the development of maggots and flies on decaying meat, Redi in devised a number of experiments, all pointing to the same conclusion: if flies are excluded from rotten meat, maggots do not develop. On meat exposed to air , however, eggs laid by flies develop into maggots.

The theory of evolution by natural selection, first formulated in Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species" in , is the process by which organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable physical or behavioral traits. Changes that allow an organism to better adapt to its environment will help it survive and have more offspring. Evolution by natural selection is one of the best substantiated theories in the history of science, supported by evidence from a wide variety of scientific disciplines, including paleontology, geology, genetics and developmental biology. More simply put, the theory can be described as "descent with modification," said Briana Pobiner, an anthropologist and educator at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D. The theory is sometimes described as " survival of the fittest ," but that can be misleading, Pobiner said.

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Metrics details. The common thread of evolution runs through all science disciplines, and the concept of evolution enables students to better understand the nature of the universe and our origins. The course examines basic principles and methods of science by following the concept of evolution from the big bang to the origin and evolution of life. Case studies of leading scientists illustrate how their ideas developed and contributed to the evolution of our understanding of the world. Evidences for physical, chemical, and biological evolution are explored, and students learn to view the evolution of matter and of ideas as a natural process of change over space and time.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The term "evolution" usually refers to the biological evolution of living things. But the processes by which planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe form and change over time are also types of "evolution. In the late s the American astronomer Edwin Hubble made a very interesting and important discovery.

Life on Earth began more than 3 billion years ago, evolving from the most basic of microbes into a dazzling array of complexity over time.

Он ни за что не установил бы переключатель, позволяющий действовать в обход… - Стратмор заставил.  - Она не дала ему договорить. Бринкерхофф почти физически ощущал, как интенсивно работают клеточки ее мозга. - Помнишь, что случилось в прошлом году, когда Стратмор занимался антисемитской террористической группой в Калифорнии? - напомнила. Бринкерхофф кивнул.

Чатрукьян некоторое время смотрел на него, лишившись дара речи, а потом бегом направился прочь из шифровалки. Стратмор повернулся и с удивлением увидел Хейла. Сьюзан поняла, в чем дело: все это время Хейл вел себя тихо, подозрительно тихо, поскольку отлично знал, что нет такой диагностики, в которой использовалась бы цепная мутация, тем более такая, которая занимала ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже восемнадцать часов.

7 Theories on the Origin of Life

Но если держать дистанцию, можно заметить его вовремя. У пистолета куда большая дальность действия, чем у полутораметрового подсвечника. Халохот двигался быстро, но осторожно. Ступени были настолько крутыми, что на них нашли свою смерть множество туристов.

Ведь на нем - единственный экземпляр ключа! - Теперь она понимала, что нет никакой Северной Дакоты, как нет и копии ключа. Даже если АНБ расскажет о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, Танкадо им уже ничем не поможет.

3 Comments

Naike S. 10.06.2021 at 10:21

The work of Darwin and Wallace went a long way in answering the question of how species evolved over time.

Eudoxio C. 11.06.2021 at 03:25

The history of life on Earth traces the processes by which living and fossil organisms evolved, from the earliest emergence of life to the present.

Parnella D. 13.06.2021 at 01:22

nature, and solves the puzzle of the origin and evolution of cellular life in the universe. Keywords: quantum; gyre; emergence; thermodynamics;.

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