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Explain The Relationship Between Teaching And Learning Pdf

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Teaching and learning are vital processes in survival as they comprise the very foundations of growth. Both of these methods are necessary in achieving development by seeking to actualize significant changes in behaviors. Equally, they have various styles and theories that guide the education system.

Difference Between Teaching and Learning

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. What is the relationship between knowledge, learning and teaching? Must learning be meaningful? Can we learn without collaborating? Can learning begin in the individual?

Can a computer teach. Toni Malgas. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Can a computer teach? Teaching and learning, according to a constructivist approach, refers to mediation between students and the object of learning, which can be a teacher, or older peers or even a computer.

My central argument is that students learn on two levels, the first level being that we learn socially with others and the second level is that we learn on an individual level, as we internalise what we have learned from others making sense of the information Vygotsky, For Piaget and Vygotsky the theory of knowledge is constructivism.

We construct our own knowledge on the basis of the conflict between what we know and what we do not know and Piaget refers to this as a state of disequilibrium Vygotsky, Piaget explained the state of disequilibrium as a distance between what students understand and what they encounter. This happens when students try to lessen imbalances by using the stimuli that cause the disequilibrium and developing new schemes or adapting old ones until equilibrium is restored Piaget, Piaget sees development and learning as assimilation and not association.

Perkins argued that information processing technologies and the diversity of educational practices surrounding the idea of constructivism might perhaps in combination afford bridging the gap in mediating between students and learning. A constructivist view holds that computers can be used as a mediating tool to help construct knowledge in teaching and learning.

Knowledge Constructivist theory equates learning with creating meaning from experience, in other words, humans create meaning for themselves. In my opinion, constructivism can be viewed as an epistemology or a learning theory that is helpful to explain how students acquire knowledge and problem solving is at the core of learning, thinking, and development.

The nature of the interdependence between individual and social processes in the construction of knowledge can be explained by examining the relationship between knowledge, learning and teaching thus referring to social and individual development, including cognitive functioning. Knowledge and learning development on both the social and individual planes is mediated by tools and signs.

This suggests that each individual learner constructs his or her own knowledge including the dynamic principles that firstly, education needs to focus on the learner and secondly, knowledge is not an entity, apart from the constructed experiences of learners or communities of learners Vygotsky, Based on Vygotsky, interrelationships fundamental to human development like mind, language and thought, external and inner speech, nature and culture, and social and individual processes are critical in the construction of knowledge.

One of the ways knowledge can be constructed is through the usage of information technology. Using the constructivist approach, this could be part of lifelong learning with the necessary support for feasible teaching and learning in preparation of students to succeed in our technologically intense, global future. Perkins states that there are facets in a learning environment which are always present.

These are: information banks teacher, resources , symbol pads computers, software such as word processor etc. All five facets provide teaching and learning environments but not all learning environments display all of them p.

For standard learning, the information banks teacher and text , symbol pads computers, software, notebooks, worksheets and task managers teachers, students, written instruction are necessary.

Vygotsky sees the ZPD as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given, allowing the child to develop skills they will use on their own thus developing higher mental functions. Constructivist learning is based on dynamic interdependence of social and individual processes. For instance, a child needs the parents, siblings, peers as well other members of the society such as teachers and artefacts to learn and develop own knowledge within, as they interact with the environment Crook, Knowledge is not directly internalised but occurs using psychological tools that the individual had not invented in seclusion; but are products of environment to which individuals have access by being actively engaged in the practices of their communities Crook, , p.

In terms of education however, there must be some mediation to bridge the gap between what is known to the learner and what needs to be known. Mediation is therefore the key to understanding how human cognition links to cultural, institutional, and historical settings since these settings shape and provides the cultural tools that individuals master to form this functioning.

Learning happens because we interact with the environment and we do not learn because we have developed but we develop because we have learned Vygotsky, This means that the learner and the learning environment are important for active learning process and the teacher has to guide the learner to create own meaning by creating a favourable environment encouraging learning p.

On the contrary, if tasks are too complex, students can become frustrated and no learning will occur. In teaching and learning, when there are tasks that students will not be able to do by themselves, the mediation from interacting with an expert or teacher or adult peers or even a computer can come into play. The help given to the student in order to perform the task is called scaffolding.

Through scaffolding students begin to internalise and can solve the problem on their own. For example, a student struggles with writing an assignment and upon consulting the lecturer the expert ; the lecturer guides the student on the importance of coherence and structuring of the paragraphs in academic writing and points her to the material that can assist with this task.

Later the student understands the art of writing an assignment and is able to internalize what was taught thus able to perform the task independently. In this example, the lecturer bridged the zone of proximal development between student and learning.

When students begin an activity, they depend on others with more experience but over time, they increasingly take responsibility for their own learning and participation in joint activity. By internalising the effects of working together, the novice acquires useful strategies and crucial knowledge.

One important factor of learning involves understanding that requires language acquisition. Language and literacy reading and writing provides another example of a social source of development because students learn language fluently by interacting with others, which promotes cognitive and linguistic mastery Chomsky, Whether this process happens in the classroom or elsewhere, it includes transmission, construction, transaction, and transformation in a continuing, complex interchange and makes learning meaningful.

The use of information technology in conjunction with constructivist approach would provide different views and perspectives to make learning meaningful. For learning to be meaningful, it requires inevitably social interactions because meaning is social. The more a student knows, the more they can learn. Applied to educational pedagogy this may lead to the transformation of communicative language into inner speech and further into verbal thinking Vygotsky, , Ch.

In the writings of Bakhurst , "the nature and content of an individual's mental life cannot be understood independently of the culture of which that individual is part" p. Bakhurst further suggests that there are two perceptions that lie behind the claims of "strong cultural theories of the mind". These are firstly, meaning is the medium of the mental, and meaning is -in some sense- socially constructed.

Secondly, the human mind, and the forms of talk in which human beings explain and predict the operations of minds, should be understood on the model of tools, and like all artefacts otherwise we cannot make sense of them independently of the social processes which make them what they are.

In order to make sense of these tools, we turn again to the ZPD and the buds that have not yet matured. For a student to make meaning of what they learn, to solve the problems and perform a task there must be some kind of mediation from a teacher, a computer or any other tool. This mediation is critical to all aspects of knowledge co-construction as indicated by Vygotsky that psychological tools mediate social and individual operating connecting the external and the internal, the social and the individual Wertsch, Vygotsky argued that the use of speech in relation to practical activity is what distinguishes humans from other animals and that words can shape an activity into structure.

For instance, you can use signs as a means of solving a given psychological problem to remember, compare, report, choose, etc. We can say signs act as an instrument of psychological activity in a manner equivalent to the role of a tool in labour. Therefore, humans use tools developed from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environment. There are more examples of semiotic means listed by Vygotsky such as "language; various systems of counting; mnemonic techniques; algebraic symbol systems; works of art; writing; schemes, diagrams, maps and mechanical drawings; all sorts of conventional signs and so on" p.

To the educational settings, addition of more tools can such as computer systems are also essential to the appropriation of knowledge- through representational activity by the developing individual.

Knowledge therefore is not internalised directly, but with psychological tools. I believe that in learning scenarios, the tools and instruments that they come to use, be it a teacher, a computer or peers, shape students.

In my view, internalisation is both a social and an individual process at the same time because in working with, working through and beyond what they have appropriated in social participation and then internalized, individuals co-construct new knowledge. In this way, learning must be meaningful and it cannot happen without external dialogue, which brings the powerful tool of language to bear on the surge of thought.

In earlier paragraphs, I have argued that for learning to take place, there must be social participation because this encourages collaboration. Even though I believe that learning construction is social and has to be meaningful, I contend that students can learn without direct collaboration.

In other words, students can learn individually by reading a book, by thinking with social and meaningful concepts that have been acquired but collaboration may be necessary for other reasons.

However, my view is that we learn so much better, when we learn with others. In current presentations of sociocultural theory with emphasis on co-participation, cooperative learning, and joint discovery, teachers bring existing knowledge to students by co-constructing it with them.

Application of collaborative settings can be useful in the classroom because of various ways of interaction. Intricate social relationships and differing cultural values can shape the intellectual interdependence in the co-construction of knowledge in classes that are not based on the traditional teacher-centered transmission model of education.

We see this in the usage of Skype, Twitter, Facebook etc. This is because technology has become an important tool for collaboration. As seen in the above paragraph, information and communication technology, when used effectively as a mediating tool can be a powerful tool for collaboration in teaching and learning settings. As much as cognitive constructivist research and practice gravitates mostly towards understanding the individual learner and separates individual processes of knowledge construction from social processes of joint understanding, I believe that they are connected and interdependent.

The development of the mind of the child is both individual and social and at the same time is the result of a long process of developmental events Vygotsky, The process of internalisation recognises unique human minds that exist because they are intricately intertwined with social, historical, cultural, and material processes including brain activities Vygotsky Based on the fact that every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people interpsychological and then inside the child intrapsychological ; this applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts.

All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals Vygotsky, , p. Piaget argued that development precedes learning holding the view that we interpret the world through mental schema. Thus, learning begins with an individual. My view is that human development starts with dependence on caregivers such as family and society where the developing individual relies largely on the vast pool of transmitted experiences of others.

Vygotsky accentuates in the "genetic law of development" the importance of social interaction in human development emphasizing that every function in the cultural development of the child comes on the stage in the social and later in the psychological. From an educational perspective, I support the Vygotskian view that interaction with the environment is very important to learning. As much as students need to learn academic content, they also need to know how to keep learning and make effective and innovative use of what they know throughout their lives because learning is a lifelong process Perkins, Learning and thinking skills should comprise: Critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, Communication skills, Creativity and innovation skills, collaboration skills, contextual learning skills, and information and communication technology to help meet the 21st century teaching and learning needs.

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NINA M. This article reports on the results of a process-product study investigating possible relationships between instructional differences and learning outcomes in a communicatively-based ESL programme. To investigate instructional differences, sixty hours of classroom observation data were collected from three classes of adult intermediate-level learners using an observation scheme which was particularly sensitive to the communicative orientation of second language instruction. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of these data revealed that there were differences in the ways in which this instructional methodology was implemented. To determine whether these instructional differences contributed to variation in improvement, learners' pre- and post-test scores on seven proficiency measures were examined in an analysis of co-variance. The results indicated that some learners improved more than others on particular measures e. The results are discussed in terms of the need to include both a process and a product component in classroom-centred research.

Having a shared understanding of these aspects is important. To teach is to engage students in learning; thus teaching consists of getting students involved in the active construction of knowledge. A teacher requires not only knowledge of subject matter, but knowledge of how students learn and how to transform them into active learners. Good teaching, then, requires a commitment to systematic understanding of learning. The aim of teaching is not only to transmit information, but also to transform students from passive recipients of other people's knowledge into active constructors of their own and others' knowledge. The teacher cannot transform without the student's active participation, of course.

Difference Between Teaching and Learning

Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой.

Тридцать лет отдал он служению своей стране. Этот день должен был стать днем его славы, его piece de resistance, итогом всей его жизни - днем открытия черного хода во всемирный стандарт криптографии. А вместо этого он заразил вирусом главный банк данных Агентства национальной безопасности. И этот вирус уже невозможно остановить - разве что вырубить электроэнергию и тем самым стереть миллиарды бит ценнейшей информации. Спасти ситуацию может только кольцо, и если Дэвид до сих пор его не нашел… - Мы должны выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ! - Сьюзан решила взять дело в свои руки.

Сьюзан даже вздрогнула от неожиданности. - Вам нужен ключ. Я поняла так, что весь смысл в том, чтобы его уничтожить. - Верно.

Вопрос национальной безопасности.

 Qu'est-ce… quelle heureest… - Он медленно открыл глаза, посмотрел на Беккера и скорчил гримасу, недовольный тем, что его потревожили.  - Qu'est-ce-que vous voulez. Ясно, подумал Беккер с улыбкой. Канадский француз.

По профессиональной привычке поправив съехавший набок узел галстука, он повернулся к писсуару. Он подумал, дома ли Сьюзан. Куда она могла уйти. Неужели уехала без меня в Стоун-Мэнор.

И вот теперь он требует, чтобы они проигнорировали целый ряд очень странных совпадений. Очевидно, директор что-то скрывает, но Бринкерхоффу платили за то, чтобы он помогал, а не задавал вопросы. Фонтейн давно всем доказал, что близко к сердцу принимает интересы сотрудников. Если, помогая ему, нужно закрыть на что-то глаза, то так тому и. Увы, Мидж платили за то, чтобы она задавала вопросы, и Бринкерхофф опасался, что именно с этой целью она отправится прямо в шифровалку.


). While teachers cannot make students learn, they can promote learning by helping students become motivated to learn, handle information and experience,​.


Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала. Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали. Она попыталась выбросить их из головы.

Кроме того, он был фанатом всевозможных прибамбасов, и его автомобиль стал своего рода витриной: он установил в нем компьютерную систему глобального позиционирования, замки, приводящиеся в действие голосом, пятиконечный подавитель радаров и сотовый телефонфакс, благодаря которому всегда мог принимать сообщения на автоответчик. На номерном знаке авто была надпись МЕГАБАЙТ в обрамлении сиреневой неоновой трубки. Ранняя юность Грега Хейла не была омрачена криминальными историями, поскольку он провел ее в Корпусе морской пехоты США, где и познакомился с компьютером.

 Танкадо мог посылать фиктивные сообщения на неиспользованный адрес в надежде, что мы его обнаружим и решим, что он обеспечил себе защиту. В таком случае ему не нужно будет передавать пароль кому-то. Возможно, он работал в одиночку.

 Но, сэр… - заикаясь выдавила.  - Я… я протестую. Я думаю… - Вы протестуете? - переспросил директор и поставил на стол чашечку с кофе.  - Я протестую.

 - Может быть, вы могли бы подойти. - Понимаете, я не могу отойти от телефона, - уклончиво отозвался Ролдан.  - Но если вы в центре, то это совсем недалеко от .

Он посмотрел на Сьюзан, стоявшую рядом с ним на платформе. Казалось, все происходящее было от нее безумно. Джабба вздохнул и снова вытер пот со лба. По выражению его лица было ясно: то, что он собирается сказать, не понравится директору и остальным. - Этот червь, - начал он, - не обычный переродившийся цикл.

Сьюзан понимающе кивнула. Это звучало вполне логично: Танкадо хотел заставить АНБ рассказать о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ всему миру. По сути, это был самый настоящий шантаж.

Значит, она слышала звук выстрела Хейла, а не коммандера. Как в тумане она приблизилась к бездыханному телу. Очевидно, Хейл сумел высвободиться. Провода от принтера лежали. Должно быть, я оставила беретту на диване, - подумала .

 Победа любой ценой? - улыбнулась Сьюзан. Защитник Джорджтауна перехватил опасную передачу, и по трибунам пронесся одобрительный гул. Сьюзан наклонилась к Дэвиду и шепнула ему на ухо: - Доктор. Он смотрел на нее с недоумением. - Доктор, - повторила .

Беккер кивнул. Уже в дверях он грустно улыбнулся: - Вы все же поосторожнее. ГЛАВА 67 - Сьюзан? - Тяжело дыша, Хейл приблизил к ней свое лицо. Он сидел у нее на животе, раскинув ноги в стороны. Его копчик больно вдавливался в низ ее живота через тонкую ткань юбки.

 Sientate! - услышал он крик водителя.  - Сядьте. Однако Беккер был слишком ошеломлен, чтобы понять смысл этих слов.

Хейл не проронил ни слова. Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается. Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался: .

Потеряв ориентацию, двигалась, вытянув перед собой руки и пытаясь восстановить в памяти очертания комнаты. Споткнулась о мусорный бачок и едва не наткнулась на кафельную стенку. Ведя рукой по прохладному кафелю, она наконец добралась до двери и нащупала дверную ручку. Дверь отворилась, и Сьюзан вышла в помещение шифровалки.

Панк изумленно взглянул на бутылку, потом отпил изрядный глоток и тупо уставился на Беккера. - Чего вы от меня хотите, мистер. Беккер улыбнулся: - Я ищу одну девушку. Двухцветный громко рассмеялся.

Он молился не об избавлении от смерти - в чудеса он не верил; он молился о том, чтобы женщина, от которой был так далеко, нашла в себе силы, чтобы ни на мгновение не усомнилась в его любви. Он закрыл глаза, и воспоминания хлынули бурным потоком.

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