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Advanced Planning and Scheduling in Manufacturing and Supply Chains : pdf free download

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Ferenc Kiss. Gintautas Dzemyda. Albertas Caplinskas. Download PDF.

A short summary of this paper. The paper summarizes the results of research on the modeling and implementation of ad- vanced planning and scheduling APS systems done in recent twenty years.

It discusses the concept of APS system — how it is thought of today — and highlights the modeling and implementation chal- lenges with which the developers of such systems should cope.

The paper contributes to APS systems theory by proposing the concept of an ensemble of collaborating algorithms. Key words: advanced planning and scheduling, optimization, simulation, reference modeling, architectural modeling. Introduction Advanced planning and scheduling APS systems already have a long, more than twenty years history. A plenty of research papers discussing the various aspects of APS systems were published in these years. However, it seems that none of them concentrates on the modeling and implementation challenges in APS systems.

Lupeikiene et al. The PEN system is an APS system, which is oriented to the make-to-order one-plant manufacturing systems and implements a predictive-reactive scheduling approach, which combines both predictive medium-term planning and scheduling, and replanning and rescheduling. It should be used together with some ERP system as an ad-on for this sys- tem.

The input of the PEN system, when it works in replanning and rescheduling mode, includes: description of the detected exception; actual state of running plan or schedule that should be repaired; and search strategy constraints. Data about the actual state of the plan or the schedule under consideration must be downloaded from the ERP. Constraints on the search strategy e. In addition, enterprise map, decision matrix, models library, simulation and optimization procedures library, goals table, management focus, resources and materials tables, and thresholds table must be al- ready stored in the system and accessible for its modules.

The materials table describes the acceptable substitutions of the materials that were foreseen in the material require- ments plan. In some cases the system is not able to absorb the negative impact caused by the occurrence of exception and to repair the plan or schedule. In such cases it gen- erates the empty set of results. It means that full replanning from the scratch must be done by ERP system. For details the reader is referred to Caplinskas et al.

Despite the great amount of quoted research papers this paper does not pretend to be the Systematic Literature Review on the topic.

ERP schedulers cannot take into account the material constraints, changeover constraints, sub-resource allocation constraints, multi-task constraints and the other complex con- straints. In other words, the materials and capacities were planed separately. Availability of capacities was taken into account very late in the production process. In order to transform a not feasible plan into executable one, input data should be changed and the whole planning procedure repeated over again.

The system did not suggest, what changes in input data should be done. In this extended procedure material requirement planning was followed by capacity requirements planning, schedul- ing and other sequentially executed planning procedures Hopp, Due to its sequen- tial nature, the planning process did lead to long processing times. The Concept of APS The concept of advanced planning and scheduling was developed in the mid s with the intention to solve the above mentioned problems.

This term is still widely used ambiguous. So, planning and scheduling process is thought of as a primary aspect of decision making in manufacturing enterprises. More exactly, decision-making is perceived as a process of determining information related to plan- ning and scheduling of business activities within an enterprise.

This process encompasses all the business activities that create and manage information required for planning and scheduling. From the administrative point of view, all the business activities are grouped according to particular business objectives or problem domains such as produc- tion management, inventory management or plant engineering.

The functional point of view shows functional aspects of business activities, such as plan, order or schedule man- agement functions, which relate these activities to planning and scheduling. Relationships between those two views can be established for every their combination.

This fact changes the understanding of what a functional structure of man- ufacturing enterprise should be and even a philosophy beyond Management Information Systems MIS in general. The main purpose of MIS is to suggest the alternative decisions, which can be made by man- agement, and for each alternative to generate and evaluate scenarios describing possible impacts and consequences.

Of course, the system should not pretend to replace the man- agers. It should only empower the managers by narrowing the set of alternative decisions and allowing them to consider only the near optimal and therefore perspective ones.

These techniques simultaneously consider a range of constraints and business rules to pro- vide real-time planning and scheduling, decision support, available-to-promise, and capable-to-promise capabilities.

APS often generates and evaluates multiple scenar- ios. According to product-oriented point of view, APS system does not substitute but only supplement or extend existing ERP systems Rohde, The ERP system handles basic activities and transactions, such as customer orders, accounting, etc. If an APS system is implemented as a subsystem of a particular ERP, it is an integral part of this ERP and should meet its internal modeling, architectural, and implementation standards.

It is not a case if an APS system is implemented as an add-on to ERP and even more so when it is implemented as a standalone software package. The term APS system is rather ambiguous. On the other hand, they have a number of commonalities and form a family of congenerous systems which is characterized by these commonalities.

Let us discuss these levels in more details. Each APS system supports all or part of the above listed objectives, but even the whole family supports them only to some extent. For example, many APS systems implement algorithms for holistic optimization and collaborative planning, but these problems are indeed not properly solved. The holistic optimization and collabo- rative planning problems are properly solved almost exclusively in the cases of centralized control of the whole supply chain.

It is because in such cases supply chain management can be seen as a simple extension of an internal integrated supply chain management Zijm, Each APS system is able to solve problems in all or in some subset of these domains.

Usually it provides a separate subsystem for each problem domain. Many APS systems can solve certain problems in additional problem domain, namely, in: 10 safety stock planning. They can plan and schedule work-force, procurements, distribution, sales and other manufacturing related processes. It happened forasmuch the classical ERP sys- tems were rather transactional than planning the.

They paid limited attention to the in- tegration of planning and scheduling activities and performed them sequentially, well- nigh ignoring their relationships Moon and Seo, A production plan provides the route, processes, process parameters, machines, and tools required for production Chang and Wysk, Mostly this was done in an informal way.

The changes, even if they were done following some formal procedure, could not be feed back to the planning level. As a result, discrepancies aroused between plans and production schedules, or solutions overlapped or even partly duplicated each other Tan and Khoshnevis, These systems simultaneously plan and schedule production taking in account available materials, workforce and plant s capacities Bubenik, Plan- ning and scheduling activities cooperate as partial stages of the integrated process, al- lowing overlapping the planning of operations with their allocation in time Garrido and Barber, The integrated system can simultaneously take into account constraints at both enterprise and plant levels, consider materials and capacity issues together, and integrate production, distribution, and logistics management issues Hvolby and Steger- Jensen, As a result, a single optimization problem should be solved.

Often this prob- lem is addressed as main or general advanced planning and scheduling problem APSP Moon et al. For details, the reader is referred to Fleischmann et al. Production plans prepared by such systems are harmonized, feasible with realistic manufacturing deadlines. They integrate manufacturing, distribution, and transportation issues. Multiple planners can access data from this plan simultane- ously. APS systems allow multi-site, multi-product planning, scheduling and control in real-time, taking into account the dynamic nature of production process.

They can plan all supply chain facilities simultaneously and helps to synchronize hundreds of planning decisions at strategic, tactical and opera- tional levels across the whole supply chain. APS systems allow creating plans satisfying the multiple objective goals. Potential bottlenecks are considered explicitly. On the other hand, APS systems are not a silver bullet.

They have also a number of shortcomings. For exhaustive discussion on this topic the reader is referred to Graves A serious shortcoming of APS systems is their need for tremendous amount of data required for the optimization of plans and schedules. In addition, the availability of resources permanently changes and data about these changes machine down time, hourly changes in head counts, etc. It is far not simple to maintain such amount of data.

In addition, many enterprises still cannot achieve the integration of their inter- nal supply chains. Thus, according to de Santa-Eulalia et al. In general, the ability to optimize only a production plan across the trade partners in the supply chain still remains a great challenge Hvolby and Steger-Jensen, Although some industrial APS systems are able to do this, this ability is used rare. As an attempt to overcome this draw- back, so-called distributed APS systems were proposed.

However, the distributed APS systems still are not enough mature and should be seen rather as experimental ones. There is also a shortcoming of APS systems of other nature.


This book is a guide to modern methods of production planning, based on new scientific achievements and various rules of practical planning. Several numerical examples illustrate most of the calculation methods, while the text includes a set of programs for calculating production programs and an example of a cloud-based enterprise resource planning ERP system. Despite the relatively large number of books devoted to the subject, advanced planning and scheduling is the first book of its kind to offer a wide range of information in a single work, a fact that led the author to write this book and publish it in English. The translation of this work consists of two parts, the first part of which deals with the design of reference and mathematical models, bottleneck models and multi-criteria models and the presentation of various sample models. It describes demand forecasting methods and also includes considerations for collecting forecasts. Finally, it provides reference information on data storage and sorting methods. The second part of this book, while analyzing different models of stock planning and safety stock calculation rules, while considering the dynamics of stock traffic in supply chains, is examined.

Network Models and Optimization pp Cite as. Advanced planning and scheduling APS refers to a manufacturing management process by which raw materials and production capacity are optimally allocated to meet demand. APS is especially well-suited to environments where simpler planning methods cannot adequately address complex trade-offs between competing priorities. However, most scheduling problems of APS in the real world face inevitable constraints such as due date, capability, transportation cost, set up cost and available resources. Thus, how to formulate the complex problems of APS and find satisfactory solutions play an important role in manufacturing systems.

Advanced Planning and Scheduling Solutions Shake Up Supply Chain Management

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Relative the massive interest, both from academia and industry in the subject area of manufacturing planning and control, there has not been much written about the use of APS systems in practice.

 Ее зовут… Не отключайся, дружище… - Роса… - Глаза Клушара снова закрылись. Приближающаяся медсестра прямо-таки кипела от возмущения. - Роса? - Беккер сжал руку Клушара. Старик застонал. - Он называл ее… - Речь его стала невнятной и едва слышной.

Кадр казался неестественно вытянутым по вертикали и неустойчивым, как бывает при дрожащем объективе, - это было результатом удаления кадров, процесса, сокращающего видеозапись вдвое и экономящего время. Объектив, скользнув по огромной площади, показал полукруглый вход в севильский парк Аюнтамьенто. На переднем плане возникли деревья.

Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей. Он сказал, что выгравированные буквы выглядят так, будто кошка прошлась по клавишам пишущей машинки.

Next-gen advanced manufacturing changes business

Он очень о многом ей не сказал - о многих вещах, которых теперь стыдился. Она была его иллюзией, его живой фантазией. Он мечтал о ней по ночам, плакал о ней во сне. Он ничего не мог с собой поделать. Она была блистательна и прекрасна, равной ей он не мог себе даже представить. Его жена долго терпела, но, увидев Сьюзан, потеряла последнюю надежду.

Стратмор решил, что лучше взять его к себе и заставить трудиться на благо АНБ, чем позволить противодействовать агентству извне. Стратмор мужественно перенес разразившийся скандал, горячо защищая свои действия перед конгрессом. Он утверждал, что стремление граждан к неприкосновенности частной переписки обернется для Америки большими неприятностями. Он доказывал, что кто-то должен присматривать за обществом, что взлом шифров агентством - вынужденная необходимость, залог мира. Но общественные организации типа Фонда электронных границ считали .

Он приготовился стрелять метров с пятидесяти и продвигался. El cuerpo de Jesus, el pan del cielo. Молодой священник, причащавший Беккера, смотрел на него с неодобрением.

Он был уверен, что все сделал вовремя, и усмехнулся. Он не сомневался в своей победе, не зная, что опоздал. Я всегда добиваюсь своей цели, - подумал Стратмор. Не обращая внимания на пролом в стене, он подошел к электронной двери. Створки с шипением разъехались в стороны.

Лежа в кровати с балдахином, она смотрела на него и знала, что ей нужен именно. Навсегда. Ее завораживала глубина его темно-зеленых глаз, и она не могла отвести от них взгляд. В этот момент где-то вдали раздался оглушительный колокольный звон.

Advanced Planning and Scheduling Models

 Да-да. Сегодня мой брат Клаус нанял девушку, очень красивую. С рыжими волосами.

Его дыхание стало ровным. - Сьюзан.  - Голос его прозвучал резко, но спокойно.

Раздался сигнал, после которого надо было оставить сообщение. - Привет, это Дэвид.  - Он замолчал, не зная, что сказать. Беккер терпеть не мог говорить с автоответчиком: только задумаешься, а тот уже отключился.  - Прости, не мог позвонить раньше, - успел сказать .

Advanced Planning and Scheduling

Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил. Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать.

Сьюзан с опаской посмотрела на связанного шифровальщика. Стратмор сидел на диване, небрежно положив берет-ту на колени. Вернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан приступила к линейному поиску.

Один шанс к миллиону. У меня галлюцинация. Когда двери автобуса открылись, молодые люди быстро вскочили внутрь. Беккер напряг зрение. Сомнений не .

ГЛАВА 63 Новообретенная веспа Дэвида Беккера преодолевала последние метры до Aeropuerto de Sevilla. Костяшки его пальцев, всю дорогу судорожно сжимавших руль, побелели. Часы показывали два часа с минутами по местному времени.


Adela B. 06.06.2021 at 12:34

Find out how early adopters of advanced planning and scheduling APS solutions are entering new customer segments, improving margins and service, and simultaneously reducing costs.

Christiane M. 06.06.2021 at 16:57

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Raphaela C. 08.06.2021 at 22:12

In the current market scenario of manufacturing, an Enterprise Resource Planning ERP system is inadequate to manage the whole manufacturing process efficiently.