File Name: difference between regulated and unregulated power supply .zip
Almost all basic household electronic circuits need an unregulated AC to be converted to constant DC, in order to operate the electronic device. All devices will have a certain power supply limit and the electronic circuits inside these devices must be able to supply a constant DC voltage within this limit. This DC supply is regulated and limited in terms of voltage and current. But the supply provided from mains may be fluctuating and could easily break down the electronic equipment, if not properly limited.
This work of converting an unregulated alternating current AC or voltage to a limited Direct current DC or voltage to make the output constant regardless of the fluctuations in input, is done by a regulated power supply circuit. All the active and passive electronic devices will have a certain DC operating point Q-point or Quiescent point , and this point must be achieved by the source of DC power. The DC power supply is practically converted to each and every stage in an electronic system.
Thus a common requirement for all these phases will be the DC power supply. All low power system can be run with a battery. But, for a long time operating devices, batteries could prove to be costly and complicated. The best method used is in the form of an unregulated power supply —a combination of a transformer, rectifier and a filter. The diagram is shown below. As shown in the figure above, a small step down transformer is used to reduce the voltage level to the devices needs. The output of the transformer is a pulsating sinusoidal AC voltage, which is converted to pulsating DC with the help of a rectifier.
This output is given to a filter circuit which reduces the AC ripples, and passes the DC components. But here are certain disadvantages in using an unregulated power supply. The output voltage changes by a great value due to the huge change in the current drawn from the supply. But this value may go higher in some countries volts. These variations in dc output voltage may cause an inaccurate or erratic operation or even malfunctioning of many electronic circuits.
For instance, in oscillators the frequency will shift, in transmitters output will get distorted, and in amplifiers, the operating point will shift causing bias instability.
Thus, the ripple voltage is largely reduced. Thus, the supply becomes a regulated power supply. The internal circuitry of a regulated power supply also contains certain current limiting circuits which help the supply circuit from getting fried from inadvertent circuits. Programmable power supplies are also available to allow remote operation that is useful in many settings. Regulated power supply is an electronic circuit that is designed to provide a constant dc voltage of predetermined value across load terminals irrespective of ac mains fluctuations or load variations.
A regulated power supply essentially consists of an ordinary power supply and a voltage regulating device, as illustrated in the figure. The output from an ordinary power supply is fed to the voltage regulating device that provides the final output. The output voltage remains constant irrespective of variations in the ac input voltage or variations in output or load current. Figure given below shows the complete circuit of a regulated power supply with a transistor series regulator as a regulating device.
Each part of the circuit is explained in detail. A step down transformer is used to step down the voltage from the input AC to the required voltage of the electronic device. This output voltage of the transformer is customized by changing the turns ratio of the transformer according the electronic device specs.
The input of the transformer being Volts AC mains, the output is provided to a full bridge rectifier circuit. Know More: Transformers. The rectified DC output is given as input to the filter circuit. Know More: Filter Circuits.
The ac voltage, typically V rms is connected to a transformer which transforms that ac voltage to the level for the desired dc output. The resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation. A regulating circuit use this dc input to provide a dc voltage that not only has much less ripple voltage but also remains constant even if the input dc voltage varies somewhat or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes.
The regulated dc supply is available across a voltage divider. Often more than one dc voltage is required for the operation of electronic circuits. A single power supply can provide as many as voltages as are required by using a voltage or potential divider, as illustrated in the figure. As illustrated in the figure, a potential divider is a single tapped resistor connected across the output terminals of the supply.
The tapped resistor may consist of two or three resistors connected in series across the supply. In fact, a bleeder resistor may also be employed as a potential divider. There are various factors that determine the quality of the power supply like the load voltage, load current, voltage regulation, source regulation, output impedance, ripple rejection, and so on. Some of the characteristics are briefly explained below:. Load Regulation — The load regulation or load effect is the change in regulated output voltage when the load current changes from minimum to maximum value.
From the above equation we can understand that when Vno-load occurs the load resistance is infinite, that is, the out terminals are open circuited. Vfull-load occurs when the load resistance is of the minimum value where voltage regulation is lost. Minimum Load Resistance — The load resistance at which a power supply delivers its full-load rated current at rated voltage is referred to as minimum load resistance.
The value of Ifull-load, full load current should never increase than that mentioned in the datasheet of the power supply. Since this ac supply mains voltage is the input to the ordinary power supply, the filtered output of the bridge rectifier is almost directly proportional to the ac mains voltage.
The source regulation is defined as the change in regulated output voltage for a specified rage of lie voltage. Output Impedance — A regulated power supply is a very stiff dc voltage source.
This means that the output resistance is very small. Even though the external load resistance is varied, almost no change is seen in the load voltage. An ideal voltage source has an output impedance of zero. Ripple Rejection — Voltage regulators stabilize the output voltage against variations in input voltage.
Ripple is equivalent to a periodic variation in the input voltage. Thus,a voltage regulator attenuates the ripple that comes in with the unregulated input voltage. Since a voltage regulator uses negative feedback, the distortion is reduced by the same factor as the gain. Hello sir, Good Morning. I have 10 V Dc in my hand and to be reduced to 5 V Dc. How to get it sir? Both are seems to be one. I need circuit schematic for V A regulated power supply for battery charger application. Variable rate charging circuit for charging traction battery is required.
You will find the main Co-Star device, power cord and dual sided remote in the box. I want to design an AC voltage regulator which requires a 28v input as its maximum, what is the necessary transformer and or what circuit should I adopt? Response is urgently needed…. Power Supplies Tutorials. Author john. Do you know how RFID wallets work and how to make one yourself? February 14, Clement 4 years ago. Lokesh 4 years ago. Sooraj N.
S 5 years ago. Uthra 6 years ago. Roy Rajkumar 6 years ago. Ritesh Dabhade 6 years ago. Use or transformer for 12v supply for regulation use regulated IC….. Margarito 7 years ago. Bayo 8 years ago. Tapamoy 8 years ago. Thank you….. Farooq Mukhtar 10 years ago. I am a new student of elestrical,therefore now i cannot give you any reply. Submit Type above and press Enter to search. Press Esc to cancel.
Understanding the difference between a regulated and unregulated power supply will give you the information you need to choose which best serves your purposes. To start, you need to fully understand why you need a power supply and what you require it to do. From there, your intended use will help you choose whether a regulated or unregulated option will best serve your needs. Power supplies adapt the type of power available, either direct current, DC, or alternating current, AC, to the needed form and voltage for a specific use. AC to DC is the most common type because electrical devices use direct current, whereas the power supply from an outlet is in alternating current. In addition to converting the current type, power supplies must also change the voltage. AC voltage often needs to be reduced to a lower voltage for most electrical devices, though some applications may require different voltage levels.
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage , current , and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices.
Generally, a power supply is a device or an electrical circuit that gives energy power to another electrical device. There are many types of power supplies; regulated and unregulated power supplies are two such categories based on the type of output. In regulated power supplies, the output DC voltage is regulated so that a change in input voltage is not reflected in the output. In contrast, unregulated power supplies do not have a voltage regulation at the output. This is the key difference between regulated and unregulated power supply. Although there are AC power supplies in use, regulated and unregulated power supplies most commonly refer to DC power supplies.
For a vast number of applications, a simple unregulated power supply is sufficient. This type of power supplies are normally used to supply power to current-hungry loads, for instance:. Although not regulated or stabilized, when designed correctly, they can be a cheap alternative to regulated power supplies. The power switch S1, via the fuse F1, gives power to the transformer TR1. The transformer perform two tasks:.
With the help of a rectifier it converts AC supply into DC. Its function is to supply a stable voltage or less often current , to a circuit or device that must be operated within certain power supply limits. The output from the regulated power supply may be alternating or unidirectional, but is nearly always DC Direct Current. The latter is much more common today. Many topologies have been used since the regulated supply was invented.
Power is the backbone of any electronic system and the power supply is what feeds the system. Choosing the right supply can be the critical difference between a device working at optimum levels and one that may deliver inconsistent results. Direct current power supplies are either unregulated or regulated. Regulated supplies come in several options including linear, switched and battery-based.
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