File Name: louis althusser ideology and ideological state apparatuses .zip
The work of Louis Althusser has proven controversial in the International Socialist tradition, as well as throughout Marxist thought worldwide. In recent years, a revival of interest in his work has taken place. He had garnered a reputation as an oppositional, radical figure among Communists and the Left more broadly, but was unable to act beyond the dictates of the party bureaucrats. Why was Althusser unable to break from the PCF? While his membership in the PCF is often claimed as evidence that he was a doctrinaire Stalinist, Althusser actually hoped to drastically change the party from within, to render it a legitimate organ of the working-class masses that formed its base of support. He believed that abandoning the party would lead to isolation from the working class, and for this reason he felt that a renewed revolutionary Marxist outlook needed to be built through an oppositional role within it.
Ideology, in all its forms, is proliferating in the twenty-first century. The present far-right nationalist sentiments that seem everywhere on the rise present only its most obvious face. Such an abundance of ideology characterizes periods of capitalist transition or crisis. As the neoliberal regime of accumulation and de regulation at the capitalist core approaches its apparent limits, a structurally necessary struggle over the means of social reproduction has moved into public view. The status quo desperately seeks stability while political activists from various corners rush forward to claim center stage — each group disseminating its own ideological fantasy. Resulting conflicts between ideologies supplement the exercise of overt class violence often but not always carried out by the state , but both coercive and consensus-making projects respond to malfunctions in the mechanisms of social reproduction. Streeck uses this term to describe the situation following the crisis, a period in which capitalism seems unsteady but no new system has arisen.
I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis. Agrawal, A. Environmentality: technologies of government and the making of subjects. Durham: Duke University Press. Althusser, L.
From Louis Althusser, “Ideology and ideological state apparatuses (Notes towards an investiga- tion).” In Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, pp. –7.
Notes on Interpellation. The term interpellation was an idea introduced by Louis Althusser to explain the way in which ideas get into our heads and have an effect on our lives, so much so that cultural ideas have such a hold on us that we believe they are our own. Ideologies — our attitudes towards gender, class, and race — should be thought of more as social processes. For Althusser , interpellation works in a manner much like giving a person a name, or calling out to them in the street. However, one is not forced to accept that role through violence.
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In contemporary capitalist societies education has replaced the Church as the principal ideological state apparatus. Beyond reproducing the assumption that the state itself reflects a particular class interest, the theory of ideological state apparatus has also been criticized for simplifying relations between these institutions and the state, and underestimating their autonomy or potential for such autonomy. It also allowed too facile an equation of challenging authority within education with weakening the capitalist system as a whole.
I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself.
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This analysis is related to the concept of Interpellation by Luis Althusser and Misogyny by SheilaJeffrey and it is under the Feminist literary theory which can reveal issues in the novel.Damein M. 07.06.2021 at 19:01
The work of Louis Althusser has proven controversial in the International Socialist tradition, as well as throughout Marxist thought worldwide.