File Name: peterson and seligman character strengths and virtues .zip
Building positive organizational performance and contributing to the creation of a better planet requires having global leaders with positive qualities in senior positions in these organizations. Some research directions are also considered.
Rueda 1. Brasil ana. Campinas - SP - Brasil. Character strengths are relatively stable, pro-social characteristics that can be manifested through behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. The authors elaborated a classification Niemiec, , resulting from an extensive literature review, titled Values In Action VIA , which brings together 24 strengths distributed among six virtues, in order to clearly describe human potentialities.
For the authors, children and adolescents living in social contexts in which the negative aspects are pronounced do not develop coping resources and, seeking solutions to their problems, face life with little enthusiasm.
Rodriguez and Cohen stated that one more dimension should be included in social support, namely informational support, which refers to the possibility of receiving information from others that helps the individual in the problem-solving and decision-making processes. Positive psychology interventions aimed at youth have been necessary, to ensure the positive development of young people.
Bastianello and Hutz endorse claims that research on issues related to character strengths, emotions, and positive attachments, such as optimism and social support, appear to be poorly addressed. Highlighting the research of Shoshani and Slone , in a longitudinal study, the authors' goal was to examine the associations between character strengths, subjective well-being, school performance of adolescents, and social behavior during the transition to high school in public schools.
The results identified, especially in relation to social behavior, that the strengths of kindness, love, and gratitude predict social adjustment and can improve the ability of adolescents to maintain and establish interpersonal relationships and develop social identities and a sense of belonging.
Accordingly, Ruch et al. In a similar study, Oliveira, Nunes, Legal and Noronha found relationships between subjective well-being and the same previous strengths, plus Humor and Love of learning. With regard to parental marital status, A item construction was submitted to a review panel for analysis and for the pilot study.
One item was suppressed and, for the validity studies, a second order analysis was performed, with the 24 character strengths, to investigate the dimensionality of the instrument.
To determine the number of factors that should be extracted, Noronha, Dellazzana-Zanon and Zanon used different methods of analysis in determining that the theoretical model of virtues could not be replicated. The alpha coefficient 0. After receiving Board approval, and approval by the schools, a secondary contact was made with the schools to schedule the applications. Because the survey participants were under 18 years of age, all research information, guidelines and collection procedures were provided to the guardians via the students, and Free and Informed Consent forms FIC were signed.
After the FICs were collected, students were shown to a separate room where they responded to the instruments. The instruments were applied collectively, within a duration of approximately 45 minutes. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version For this, enter was the chosen method, considering each of the 24 character strengths as a dependent variable and the five personality traits as independent variables. Prior to the aforementioned linear regression analysis, predictive character strengths analyses were performed, individually, based on the Perceived Social Support Scale factors.
For each of the 24 regressions, Coping with Problems Factor 1 , Social Interaction Factor 2 and Affectivity Factor 3 were selected as independent variables.
Table 1 shows the regression coefficients summarized. Of the 24 regressions, with the exception of Self-regulation, the 23 others were significant. Of these, the adjusted coefficients of determination R 2 varied from 0. Accordingly, we can say that 7 strengths were better predicted, namely Gratitude, Prudence, Love, Humor, Vitality, Teamwork and Creativity. In order to better understand the contribution of EPSUS-IJ factors toward the explanation of character strengths, Table 2 informs on the significance of each.
The data allow us to identify that Factor 1 Coping with Problems contributed significantly in 21 strengths. Social Interaction, Factor 2, presented significant coefficients in 14 strengths, and Affectivity or Factor 3 , in 12 strengths.
A discussion of these findings follows. According to McGrath a , one reason that studies directed at the character strengths, such as the present research, are relevant is because such strengths are subject to lexical differences as well as cultural context, even while they are recognized as universal human characteristics.
From this perspective, studying the model with distinct samples is necessary. Because of this, it was elected as a construct to be related to the Character Strengths Scale. For Procidano and Hellen , the study of perceived social support in adolescents may reveal important information since, depending on the nature of established peer relationships, changes are observed throughout their development, which negatively or positively impact perceived social support.
Regarding the findings, perceived social support-that is, how much the participants in the sample perceive that their social relationships have affective aspects and help to face problems-predicted with greater prominence seven strengths. Three strengths 1 Love values relationships with others, in which there is reciprocal exchange and affection, and prioritizes to closeness with them , 2 Teamwork works well within a group, collaborates and is loyal and 3 Humor makes people laugh and systematically values positive aspects of situations are very focused on contact with the Other, which justifies the results.
Similarly, Gratitude being aware that good things happen also favors the relationship between life events and people. As highlighted by Snyder and Lopez , if the social context lacks positive role models and affection, young people will have fewer resources to face life with enthusiasm and solve their problems.
In the same direction, the authors endorse that environment exerts great influence in the forging of character strengths. Ruch et al. Their results partially corroborate those of the present study, since the character strengths of Hope, Gratitude, Love and Vitality correlated positively with life satisfaction. The authors endorse that social support, feeling of belonging to the group, is associated with psychological well-being. As for the best predictor, Factor 1 of the Perceived Social Support Scale, respondents most frequently related their perception of how much support was received from their social network members in moments of decision-making.
This is pertinent given the assertions of Bastianello and Hutz , that people who perceive strong social support present better emotional adjustment. The first objective of the research was satisfied. This investigation can aid in the social understanding of the emotional, familiar and social phenomena of the subjects. That said, all scientific investigation of human potentialities that may contribute to the development of psychological knowledge, becomes relevant.
Therefore, as a research agenda, we see the need to broaden the analyzed variables and rely on a more representative sample. Verifying relationships between the adolescents and their parents guardians could also suggest other important reflections.
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Baptista, M. Bastianello, M. Campos, E. En: J. Mello Filho Org. Cobb, S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine , 38 5 , De Jong Gieverld, J. Virtue is its own reward? Support-giving in the family and loneliness in middle and old age. Ageing and Society , 28 2 , Hair, J. Porto Alegre: Bookman. McGrath, R. European Journal of Psychological Assessment , 1, Integrating psychological and cultural perspectives on virtue: The hierarchical structure of character strengths.
The Journal of Positive Psychology , 10 5 , Noronha, A. Hutz Org. Psico-USF , 20 2 , Acta Colombiana de Psicologia , 19 2 , Nurullah, A. Received and provided social support: a review of current evidence and future directions. American Journal of Health Studies , 27 3 , Oliveira, C. Peterson, C. Procidano, M. Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies.
American Journal of Community Psychology , 11 1 , Proyer, R. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: A randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs.
Frontiers in Psychology , 9 , Renshaw, T. What good is gratitude in youth and schools? A systematic review and meta-analysis of correlates and intervention outcomes. Psychology in the Schools , 53 3 , Rodriguez, M. Social support. En: H.
Friedman Org. New York: Academic Press. Ruch, W. Personality and Individual Differences , 68 , European Journal of Psychological Assessment , 30 1 ,
We investigated cultural influences on the distribution of character strengths, gender differences in character strengths, and the relationship of happiness to character strengths. American and Japanese showed similar distributions of the 24 strengths measured: Higher strengths included love, humor and kindness, and lesser strengths included prudence, self-regulation, and modesty. Gender differences across cultures were also similar: Females were more likely than males to report strengths of love and kindness, whereas males were more likely to report bravery and creativity. In both samples, associations with happiness were found for zest, hope, curiosity and gratitude. The present study is a first step in an international study of character strengths, and we discuss the ubiquity and variation of character across culture.
This chapter provides an overview of character strengths and mindfulness. Character strengths are specific psychological processes that define broader virtues, which are core characteristics that have been identified and valued by moral philosophers and religious thinkers throughout time. The chapter focuses on the contributions of the VIA Inventory of Strengths to research and assessment in character strengths, and the application of this framework to further strengths-based approaches to disability. Mindfulness has been described not only as a practice, but also as a state, a trait, a process, and an outcome. The chapter examines research, practice, and the application of mindfulness to disability contexts. A discussion of areas of connectivity between character strengths and mindfulness and a look at future directions for research and practice in character strengths and mindfulness in disability conclude the chapter. Keywords: Character strengths , mindfulness , VIA Inventory of Strengths , meditation , assessment , positive mindfulness.
Two of positive psychology's leading figures, Chris Peterson and Martin Seligman, compiled a book with the title "Character Strengths and Virtues, A Handbook and Classification" within which they categorized all the strengths that are valued across the planet. In the process they studied positive character traits across research, history and in different fields and cultures and then distilled them into 24 distinct character strengths , all of which are universally valued. The resulting handbook is like a manual of mental wellness. Each strength belongs to one of six groups or virtues, namely wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance and transcendence. The six groups of virtues are listed in the mind map below and are defined in the sections immediately thereafter. Six Virtues.
18–. Character strengths and virtues: a handbook and classification / Christopher Peterson,. Martin E. P. Seligman p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p.).
Character Strengths and Virtues classifies twenty-four specific strengths under six broad virtues that consistently emerge across history and culture: wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Each strength is thoroughly examined in its own chapter, with special attention to its meaning, explanation, measurement, causes. They virtues are wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Character strengths and virtues: A classification and handbook. Smith, E.
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