File Name: nutritional and functional properties of dates a review .zip
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Formulation and characterization of protein-energy bars prepared by using dates, apricots, cheese and whey protein isolate.
Six protein energy-bars B1-B6 were prepared for Pakistani-athletes using dates, dried apricots, Cheddar-cheese and whey-protein isolate. Bars B1-B3 contained 5 g Cheddar-cheese and 13 g whey-protein isolate while quantity of dates were 74, 68 and 65 g and apricots 8, 14 and 17 g respectively. Bars B4-B6 contained 8g Cheddar-cheese and 12 g whey protein isolate while dates and apricots were same as in bars B1-B3.
Maximum hardness was noticed in bar B1 and lowest in B6 while highest firmness was recorded in B2 and lowest in B6. Study revealed that these bars have good sensory attributes, physical characteristics and shelf-stability and could be a healthy snack for athletes.
The trend of natural products has been increased from last few years, retail-stores, specialized and super-markets are special sources to commercialize such products. These products have beneficial and constructive health effects as these are not contained residues of fertilizers and pesticides that are usually present in conventional-food and considered hazardous for human health Iuliano et al.
In a current busy society, calm sitting down for food is sometimes impossible and consumers are looking for healthy and ready to eat foods. These kinds of bars are used as a quick source of energy in sports and breakfast. To prepare ready to use fruit bars, various fruits are being used to attract the people of different age groups to compensate for their calorie and protein requirements.
These bars are mainly composed of cereals, legumes, fruits and nuts with chocolate coating or chips Munir et al. Health claims of such natural food bars showed positive effects regarding consumer acceptance due to their potential to act as a functional food.
Therefore, stimulates the snack food industry to introduce the healthy snack-bars and encourage the food scientists to understand the value of natural snack-bars that how these products affect the consumer health and their daily food choices Pinto et al.
Dates are rich in carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins and flavonoids. Apricot is another delicious fruit, not only contains carbohydrates and minerals but also has a significant quantity of bioactive compounds Incedayi et al.
Pakistan is 7 th and 10 th largest producer of dates and apricot respectively but the export of these fruits is very limited. Apricot and dates are very cheap in Pakistan and available as raw material for many food products. Due to taste and aroma, their fruits are highly appreciated in the markets of Pakistan. Owning the composition and health benefits of cheese, it is being exploited in the production of various health products.
During cheese making process the obtained whey is also an important ingredient which is used in a wide range of food products due to its lower cost, good functional and nutritional quality Alves et al.
In Pakistan, the least importance is given to the diet for athletes. The instructors and nutritionist recommend them only whey protein isolate WPI for muscle building and they have no other choice.
Considering this situation and after reviewing the literature, the present study was planned to develop the protein energy-bars PE-bars from dates, dried apricots, ripened Cheddar cheese CC and whey protein isolate WPI keeping in view the recommended dietary allowance RDA guidelines for athletes carbohydrates and protein g and 1. The objective was to newly developed bars could meet the requirements of Pakistani athletes by consuming a serving size of two bars daily. Dates Aseel tamer stage , dried apricots Halman were procured from a supermarket of Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Most of the chemicals used in the study were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich St. Before finalizing the formulation of final bars, thirteen protein energy-bars PE-bars B1-B13 were prepared during preliminary trials using different combinations of dates, dried apricots, cheese and WPI.
In B1-B5 and B6-B10 bars, the carbohydrates 55g were provided by the dates 74 g and apricot The concentration of date: apricot in PE-bars B11, 12 and 13 was These quantities were calculated on the ratios of , In 1 st phase of sensory evaluation, 3 bars BB13 out of 13 were selected which were close in sensory attributes while PE-bars B1-B5 and B were rejected due to high sugary taste and salty or slightly bitter taste respectively.
In 2 nd phase, taste and texture of PE-bars B11 g , B12 g and B13 g were further improved by changing the cheese: WPI concentration as suggested by panellists. The bar B11 was also divided into B 4, B 5 and B 6, in which the concentration of cheese: WPI was similar g , while the levels of dates: apricots were g, g and g respectively. These six PE-bars B1-B6 were evaluated for microbiological, antioxidant potential, textural and sensory attributes to find out the best formulation of the bar.
For the formulation of bars, dates and apricots were cleaned, washed, soaked and grinded into the paste. Composition of PE-bars including moisture, protein and lipid contents were determined by following their prescribed methods of AOAC Association of Analytical Chemist, and the results were expressed on a dry-weight basis. The maximum force that applied is used as an index of hardness and firmness.
The arithmetic mean was calculated and expressed as a total number of bacteria per gram and total mold count per plate. To calibrate the concentration of total phenolics in PE-bars the absorbance of standard Gallic acid solution of 0, , , and ppm were also measured at nm.
The serving size of each bite was gram that was consistent for each bar. Total of 25 panellists took part and fill their respective proformas. Drinking water offered during evaluation to rinse the mouth before testing the next bar. Simple linear correlation analysis was used to determine a relationship between the mean values of PE-bars and their storage effect.
The results of the compositional analysis are presented in Table 2. The moisture content of PE-bars is a crucial factor in shelf stability and quality characteristics taste, texture and visual acceptance of any product Pallavi et al. The higher concentration of cheese in B4-B6 could be responsible for the increase in moisture content. The addition of WPI and cheese not only enhanced the amount of protein content but also improved the nutritional quality of PE-bars.
Veggi et al. The WPI is practically free from fat Haraguchi et al. There was a decreasing trend in pH of all PE-bars up to 15 days of storage, afterwards, a decrease was noticed only in B2 and B4.
There was variation in acidity of all PE-bars except B5 and B6. At day one, the acidity increased in all PE-bars. On 15 th day and onward, there was an increasing trend in acidity of all PE-bars except B2 and B3.
The main ingredients of PE-bars were dates, dried apricots, cheese and whey protein isolate which are main contributors of acidity and pH. Highest decline in pH of B1 0. It could be due to higher concentration of dates in B1 74 g of dates and apricots 8 g and lower in B6 64 g dates and 16 g apricot. The pH of dried apricots Halman is 4. The acetic acid, citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid are main the organic acids that produced in dates and apricots thus conferring high acid content to the product Ghnimi et al.
Thus content of organic acid increased and sugar concentration decreased that contributes in increased acidity during storage. The decreasing trend was observed in A w during storage. Moreover, A w of bars varied as a function of its components and storage period.
Silva et al. Thus, bars beyond this range can be stored for an extensive period and allowing their manufacturing on a larger scale Loveday et al. Similarly, the bars B4, B5 and B6 showed a higher decreased in water activity during 45 days of storage. Thus, casein has a significant role to improve the texture and consistency of food Southward, ; Ahmad et al. The changes in the hardness of PE-bars during storage are presented in Figure 2 a. The hardness of PE-bars 0.
Hardness continued to decrease till the 30 th day of storage, afterwards an increase was noticed up to 45 th day of storage. The firmness of PE-bars Figure 2 b , revealed that it varied from 0.
On 15 th and 30 th days of storage, a progressive decrease in firmness 0. After this, at 45 th day of storage, the increase in firmness was observed in B3, B4 and B6, while a further decline was noticed in B1, B2 and B5. The proteins aggregation and microstructural changes in protein bars usually affected the solubility of proteins.
Therefore, this phenomenon has a large effect to induce the hardness in PE-bars immediately after manufacturing and throughout the storage period Loveday et al. The other factor that could be responsible for bar hardening includes the migration of moisture and Maillard reaction that induced the polymerization of protein and caused to plasticize the texture of bar Rao et al. However, the results of the present study showed a decrease in hardness in first 30 days, due to the addition of dates and dried apricots, which are the good source of non-reducing sugars glucose and fructose Tran, Cheddar cheese is a good source of casein that act as an intact protein to reduce the bar hardness during storage Rao et al.
Similarly, the firmness of B2 and B3 PE-bars could be due to higher concentration of whey protein, which was responsible for firmness but it results in undesirable texture and rubbery mouthfeel during storage. Moreover, the product firmness is significantly affected by the moisture content which is induced by the formation of cross-linking between sugars and proteins while the moisture acts as a plasticizer and reduces the formation of this cross-linkage and cause to decrease the firmness of a product Rao et al.
At day one, the highest plate count was noticed in B6 and lowest value in B1. At 15 th , 30 and 45 th day, the total plate count was decreased significantly in all PE-bars except B6 that showed a non-significant reduction. For mold count, at day one the mold count of PE-bars varied from 1. After 15 days, it decreased in all PE-bars. However, the difference between B2 and B4, B5 and B6 were non-significant.
From 30 th to 45 th day of storage, mold count decreased, but there was no significant difference between B2 and B6, B3 and B4. The small difference in total plate count among all the PE-bars could be due to the difference in the level of major ingredients dates and dried apricots.
Dates contained very high sugar content that attributes a hygroscopic behaviour, drawing the water from product and inserting sugar molecules inside thus very less water is available for microbial activity Kang et al. The microorganisms are mostly neutrophilic and cannot grow at less than 4. The water stress increases with lower water activity and these processes help to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms Rahman, The decline in the bacterial count during storage could be due to the gradual decrease in pH.
Both these haemostatic processes assisting in utilizing the maximum energy which initially slows down the growth of microorganisms but when they maintain it for an extended period, it ultimately causes the death of microorganisms as they are unable to supply the required energy to increase the pH and maintain the haemostasis Abekhti et al.
There are various factors which influence the mold growth including water activity, relative humidity, temperature, pH and storage time.
Molds can easily survive with A w of 0. The mold growth occurs more frequently at A w from 0. The survival of mold at lower A w also depends upon the oxygen retention, nutrient availability, solutes concentration, temperature and pH.
At lower A w with high osmotic pressure, the spores and vegetative cells cannot survive. The change in TPC during storage is effected by the storage time and conditions. All PE-bars showed higher polyphenols content and tendency to increase than their initial values.
The possible increment of polyphenols due to the reactions between oxidized polyphenols and formation of new antioxidant compounds Martinez-Flores et al.
Author s : Dulce M. Eugenio Garza Sada Ave CP Monterrey, NL, Mexico. DOI :
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Clare M. Functional foods can be considered to be those whole, fortified, enriched or enhanced foods that provide health benefits beyond the provision of essential nutrients e. However, not all foods on the market today that are claimed to be functional foods are supported by enough solid data to merit such claims.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Athletes around the world depend on adequate nutrition for performance and endurance activities.
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Formulation and characterization of protein-energy bars prepared by using dates, apricots, cheese and whey protein isolate. Six protein energy-bars B1-B6 were prepared for Pakistani-athletes using dates, dried apricots, Cheddar-cheese and whey-protein isolate. Bars B1-B3 contained 5 g Cheddar-cheese and 13 g whey-protein isolate while quantity of dates were 74, 68 and 65 g and apricots 8, 14 and 17 g respectively. Bars B4-B6 contained 8g Cheddar-cheese and 12 g whey protein isolate while dates and apricots were same as in bars B1-B3. Maximum hardness was noticed in bar B1 and lowest in B6 while highest firmness was recorded in B2 and lowest in B6. Study revealed that these bars have good sensory attributes, physical characteristics and shelf-stability and could be a healthy snack for athletes. The trend of natural products has been increased from last few years, retail-stores, specialized and super-markets are special sources to commercialize such products.
Когда улица сделала поворот, Беккер вдруг увидел прямо перед собой собор и вздымающуюся ввысь Гиральду. Звон колоколов оглушал, эхо многократно отражалось от высоких стен, окружающих площадь. Людские потоки из разных улиц сливались в одну черную реку, устремленную к распахнутым дверям Севильского собора. Беккер попробовал выбраться и свернуть на улицу Матеуса-Гаго, но понял, что находится в плену людского потока. Идти приходилось плечо к плечу, носок в пятку.
Может быть, хочешь воды. Она не нашлась что ответить. И проклинала. Как я могла не выключить монитор. Сьюзан понимала: как только Хейл заподозрит, что она искала что-то в его компьютере, то сразу же поймет, что подлинное лицо Северной Дакоты раскрыто.
- Умер человек. Почему вы не дождались полицейских.
- Я же терпеть не могу мотоциклы. Он крикнул парню: - Десять тысяч, если отвезете меня в аэропорт. Тот даже не повернул головы и выключил двигатель.
Он лжет, - фыркнула Мидж. - Я два года проверяю отчеты шифровалки. У них всегда все было в полном порядке.
Сьюзан чувствовала, как кабина набирает скорость, двигаясь в сторону главного здания АНБ. Наконец она остановилась, и дверь открылась.
У нас есть около часа, - сказал Джабба. - Достаточно, чтобы созвать пресс-конференцию и все выложить. - Каковы ваши рекомендации? - требовательно спросил Фонтейн. - Что вы предлагаете. - Рекомендации? - выпалил Джабба.
Но ведь у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ, почему бы его не расшифровать? - Но, увидев выражение лица Стратмора, она поняла, что правила игры изменились. - О Боже, - проговорила Сьюзан, сообразив, в чем дело, - Цифровая крепость зашифровала самое. Стратмор невесело улыбнулся: - Наконец ты поняла.
are a good source of antioxidants, mainly carotenoids and phenolics.