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Chapter 1 – Farm Machinery and Equipment

Renato L. Bergamo 1. Leonardo N. Romano 2. This study aims at presenting the process of machine design and agricultural implements by means of a reference model, formulated with the purpose of explaining the development activities of new products, serving as a guideline to coach human resources and to assist in formalizing the process in small and medium-sized businesses SMB , i.

The methodology used included the process modeling, carried out from case studies in the SMB, and the study of reference models in literature. The modeling formalism used was based on the IDEF0 standard, which identifies the dimensions required for the model detailing: input information; activities; tasks; knowledge domains; mechanisms; controls and information produced. These dimensions were organized in spreadsheets and graphs. As a result, a reference model with 27 activities and 71 tasks was obtained, distributed over four phases of the design process.

The evaluation of the model was carried out by the companies participating in the case studies and by experts, who concluded that the model explains the actions needed to develop new products in SMB. The difficulties encountered by SMB can be a result of their reduced number of employees, as in the SEBRAE classification companies with 20 to 99 are considered small businesses, and those with between and employees are considered medium-sized.

The study by BERGAMO points out that the use of process management systems is convenient for the SMB in the industry, reducing design time, production costs and providing consumers with equipment which allows the use of technology in favor of modern agriculture.

For that, these companies require conditions to compete in the market with satisfactory functional performance products in carrying out agricultural operations, encompassing innovation and technology, combined with low production costs ROMANO, According to BACK et al. Accordingly, the realization of systematic processes of product developments occurs by formal particular models, where the term "model" can be used to characterize features and structures that represent objects or scenarios BAIO et al.

Reference model is defined by VERNADAT as a partial model or not, which can be used as a basis for the development or evaluation of particular models and particular model corresponds to the model dedicated to an aspect of a particular company or system.

The benefits that formal project models provide in many companies, especially in small and medium-sized ones, are not used due to their structural characteristics, as they have a small number of people dedicated to the PDP, little expertise in project management and lack of systematization and management of their processes.

In this context, the aim of this paper is to present a model of agricultural machinery and implements process design, designed to cover the structural characteristics of small and medium-sized Brazilian companies, thus defining the main guidelines for the development of new products. A sample of 10 particular models of product development process of micro, small and medium businesses of the Rio Grande do Sul state was considered in the preparation of the reference model.

The comparative analysis of the particular models enabled the identification of what were the activities, tasks and knowledge domains identified from the functional departments of the companies, necessary for product design in small and medium-sized companies SMB.

Comparison of particular models in relation to the MR-PDMA aimed to identify gaps in the processes practiced by the companies, assisting in the identification of modeling dimensions, such as activities, tasks, mechanisms and controls inherent to the process and necessary for the development of the reference model, providing a complete view of the PDP.

In the graphic and descriptive representation of the reference model, the structure of reference models representation proposed by ROMANO et al. The model representation was carried out through graphic schemes, where activities and tasks performed at each stage of the project are indicated. Each activity and task was configured in the spreadsheet according to the logical sequence for carrying out the project, ordered in a continuous workflow. Each phase of the agricultural machinery and implements design process was organized in different tabs of the spreadsheet, totaling four tabs that refer respectively to the phases of informational design, conceptual design, preliminary design and detailed design.

The model, by describing the steps required for the design of new products and improvement of existing products, can be used both as a tool in academic and continuing education of professionals, and as a basis for the adjustment and improvement process carried out by the companies, contributing in this case, to: a the formalization of PDP; b systematization of activities and tasks performed in the projects; c encouraging innovation and diffusion of knowledge; d process planning and controlling, which facilitates work, reduces time and supports decision making.

This entire process is performed by executing 49 activity decomposed into tasks, over seven phases. The grouping of these phases defines three macro phases: planning, designing, and implementation. This article presents the modeling performed to define the design macro stage, responsible for the action of designing the product and its manufacturing process. The macro design stage, illustrated in Figure 1 , is of the phases and evaluations type. At the end of a project phase, results are evaluated using criteria for decision making on progress to the next stage.

Designing consists of four phases: i informational project; ii conceptual design; iii preliminary design; and iv detailed design. The model stages are formed by a set of activities, which are defined by a subset of tasks. Thus, the model was created with the definition of 5 activities and 13 tasks for the informational design stage, 4 activities and 11 tasks for the stage of conceptual design, 6 activities and 19 tasks for the preliminary design stage, and 12 activities and 28 tasks for the stage of detailed design.

The tasks described in the model are classified according to the areas of knowledge necessary for their achievement. This classification allows the identification of those involved and those responsible for carrying out the activities and tasks. The knowledge areas covered are described in Table 1. The informational design phase aims to establish the product design specifications by carrying out two sets of activities and tasks Figure 2 which primarily include a collection of information, then its treatment in order to define the project metrics.

Information gathering seeks to identify, from the original customer information, a list of the requirements to be met by the product to be developed e. It is observed that the customers mentioned include those who have some kind of relationship with the product throughout its life cycle, either project or economic ROZENFELD et al.

According to this, the classification presented in ROMANO regarding the types of customers is adopted: i external: users and experts; ii intermediaries: people responsible for distribution, marketing and after-sales; and iii internal: people involved in the design and implementation of the product under production.

Besides these, other information should be collected in order to do the analysis of similar agricultural machinery, incidence of legislation, regulatory standards and search for patents. Processing of the information collected results in the formalization of project requirements, i. For this, it is started from a list of customer requirements e.

Such requirements will be partly conflicting, suggesting occasionally the need for valuation e. With these requirements established, the design specifications can be developed e. The specifications shall be subjected to the business management approval for the project to continue on to the conceptual design phase.

These records aims to document the recommendations of the best practices employed in the activities and tasks, thinking about the use in the next projects. The conceptual design phase has its activities and tasks presented in Figure 3. Its purpose is to generate the agricultural machinery conception. The phase begins with the base product analysis, i. The overall function of the agricultural machine should be identified, as well as the lower-level sub-functions in order to obtain the product functional structure, according to the prescribed BACK et al.

This strategy makes room for product innovation. After defining the functional structure and the solution of principles of design for the elementary product functions, the outlines of the conceptions of the agricultural machine or implement is generated in a first level of product modeling, sufficient to determine the main components with the purpose of estimating the initial cost of each conception.

The design chosen is, then, submitted for approval before the GE, who authorizes the project to proceed to the next stage. The preliminary design phase Figure 4 is intended for the complete specification of the agricultural machine or implement components, implying in the evaluation of the manufacturing capacity and economic feasibility of the product. This includes the definition, design and analysis of systems, subsystems and components SSC that compose the product and that will determine the product final form and layout, supported by the principles of safety, ergonomics, aesthetic, and expression and which affect the product operation.

The analysis of the SSC include the identification of the product critical aspects related to the operation, manufacturing, installation, performance, quality, cost, use, maintenance, disposal, among others. With the agricultural machine shape and layout set, the list of materials is obtained initial for the product and the variants versions can be set, which can be assembled from the product, its options and accessories, of course according to the demand defined by the commercial area.

The definition of versions, options and accessories take into account the marketing definitions ROMANO, and the company's products portfolio. By defining the list of materials and the SSC design, there will be data an information for the assessment of manufacturing capacity and thereby definition of the items that will be produced internally manufactured or externally purchased.

From these analyzes follows the estimate of the necessary investment in production tooling, the budget of items purchased externally and the verification of the need to develop new suppliers if necessary. With this, an update of the product cost must follow, in which the expenses incurred and the estimated investment in tooling are considered, comparing it with the target cost set at the verification of the product current demand, as a reference in determining the economic feasibility of the agricultural machine.

These results include the main outputs of the preliminary design phase, which are submitted to approval along with the product design before the business management and commercial department, who authorize the continuation of the project to the next stage. The detailed design phase aims to build the agricultural equipment prototype, perform tests and define the product-manufacturing plan Figure 5.

It starts with the preparation of the manufacturing plan and prototype testing. After testing, it is recommended to disassemble the prototype for individualized assessment of its components, in order to identify premature wear and other failure modes. The components that present problems should have their design fixed. After obtaining the prototype approval, comes the elaboration of the technical product documentation, with the formalization of specifications and description of the instruction manual.

At this stage there is the detail of the product manufacturing plan, which involves the definition of the manufacturing process and the development of manufacturing tools. With the end of the tooling project there is an updating in the development cost and the release of amounts spent on all activities of the stage, in the project cost center, then submitting the manufacturing plan for approval by the GE, which by approving, authorizes the start of the preparation phase of production and release.

The macro design stage, from the Reference Model for Agricultural Machinery Development Process for Small and Medium Businesses explains the activities and tasks required for PDP, assisting in the management and formalization of the design process. The MR-PDMA-EPM provides companies with a small number of people dedicated to the PDP and which have low project management qualification a more systematic process, facilitating work, reducing time and aiding in decision making.

BACK, N. Barueri: Manole, BAIO, F. Influencing factors in agricultural machinery design. Evaluation of product development process from technological innovation: a study in the segment of agricultural machinery and equipament. Standard for integration definition for function modeling IDEF0. Gaitherburg, Marketing in the pre-development process of agricultural machines: a reference model.

An introduction to the reference model for the agricultural machinery development process. Gramado: IGDP, Acesso em: 27 maio Enterprise modeling and integration: principles and applications.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Services on Demand Journal. ABSTRACT This study aims at presenting the process of machine design and agricultural implements by means of a reference model, formulated with the purpose of explaining the development activities of new products, serving as a guideline to coach human resources and to assist in formalizing the process in small and medium-sized businesses SMB , i.

Key words: product development process; reference model; prototypes. Received: May 19, ; Accepted: November 03, Paulo Donato Castellane, km 5 How to cite this article.

agricultural implements pictures with names and uses pdf in malayalam

Ia percuma untuk mendaftar dan bida pada pekerjaan. Agricultural Machinery is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. These are common farm equipment jerome gee academia edu. Most of the implements and tools which were developed and is being produced by local artisans were made from stone, wood, bone, shell, teeth, plant fibre or animal. Mechanical power Mechanical power has become the major power source for precisely and timely completion o f different 7 months ago views by Zain Agu. In this article, we want to tell you about farm tools and their functions. The best-known example of this kind is the tractor.

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Tractors are the main cause of accidental deaths on farms. Over the years, many farmers, farm workers and others living on or visiting farms, have been killed or seriously injured falling from moving tractors, being run over by tractors, or being crushed when a tractor rolls sideways or backwards. Regularly check for hazards relating to tractors, attached implements and field conditions. Hazard areas could include mechanical parts, operator training, other people, work procedures, unsafe jacking, climatic conditions, chemicals used, uneven terrain, and any other potential causes of an injury or a hazardous incident.

Because crop cultivation and farming involve heavy labor and a variety of different processes, it would be nearly impossible to do so by hand. Machinery and tools have become a necessity for farming in this day and age. In general, these implements can be divided into five primary categories, based on their use:.

agricultural implements pictures with names and uses pdf in malayalam

Modern farmers have a huge range of equipment options for the various activities they do on an annual basis. From high-tech combine harvesters to simple tractors, the various kinds of farm equipment available can meet the needs of small-scale homesteaders and industrial-size farming operations alike. However, it can be difficult to keep track of all the options. New farmers especially may wonder what the different types of farming machinery are for. For small- and mid-size farms especially, determining the different types of farming machinery you may need to make your operations more efficient can be frustrating.

These are The function of this farm equipment is to cultivate the soil and prepare it for sowing. The following is the use of machines in doing various types of work depending on their functions. Types of agriculture implements Farm tools and their uses with pictures. Farmking Shri Kanhaiyalal Ramratan Krishi Yantra Laghu Udyog is a name to reckon with among the Indian manufacturers, exporters and suppliers of agricultural farm equipment and implements like heavy duty spring loaded tiller, tine rigid tiller, offset disc harrow mounted type , mounted disc harrow and disc plough etc. Agricultural Machinery is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. The best-known example of this kind is the tractor. Agricultural equipment is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming.


Agricultural equipment is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. The best-known example of this kind is the tractor. Coffee bean Harvester, Mareeba, Queensland , Australia. Media related to Agricultural machines at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Four Wheel Tractor — is used to pull disc plow and disc harrow in preparing much bigger area of land. Water Pump- are used to draw irrigation water from a source. Generator - is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

3. farm tools, implements and equipment.pdf

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List of agricultural machinery

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