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Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form orby any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includingphotocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permissionin writing from the publishers.

Acoustic Phonetics is the study of the physical properties of sounds. The alphabet was sponsored by the now-defunct Ministry for Posts and Telecommunications. However, the lack of influence from other languages, in addition Japan's isolation from the rest of the world, has contributed much to the precision of the Japanese phonetic system.

A Dictionary of Linguistics & Phonetics, David Crystal, 6th edition

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Together they commissioned volumes on the traditional themes of language study, with particular emphasis on the history of the English language and on the individual linguistic styles of major English authors.

In David Crystal took over as editor, and The Language Library now includes titles in many areas of linguistic enquiry. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act , without the prior permission of the publisher.

Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks, or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Revised ed. Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN hardcover : alk. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website at www. The critical reader begins to wonder if some strange naming taboo attaches to the terms that a linguist uses, whereby when he dies they must be buried with him. Dwight Bolinger, Aspects of Language, p.

What is needed, I said then, is a comprehensive lexicographical survey, on historical principles, of twentieth-century terminology in linguistics and phonetics.

And I continued, in that and the subsequent four prefaces, in the following way. We could use the techniques, well established, which have provided dictionaries of excellence, such as the Oxford English Dictionary. The painstaking scrutiny of texts from a range of contexts, the recording of new words and senses on slips, and the systematic correlation of these as a preliminary to representing patterns of usage: such steps are routine for major surveys of general vocabulary and could as readily be applied for a specialized vocabulary, such as the present undertaking.

Needless to say, it would be a massive task — and one which, for linguistics and phonetics, has frequently been initiated, though without much progress. I am aware of several attempts to work along these lines, in Canada, Great Britain, Japan and the United States, sometimes by individuals, sometimes by committees. All seem to have foundered, presumably for a mixture of organizational and financial reasons.

I tried to initiate such a project myself, twice, but failed both times, for the same reasons. The need for a proper linguistics Preface to the Sixth Edition vii dictionary is thus as urgent now as it ever was; but to be fulfilled it requires a combination of academic expertise, time, physical resources and finance which so far have proved impossible to attain.

And how to deal with the enquiries from the two kinds of consumer of linguistic and phonetic terms? For this surely is the peculiar difficulty which linguists have always had to face — that their subject, despite its relative immaturity, carries immense popular as well as academic appeal. Not only, therefore, is terminology a problem for the academic linguist and phonetician; these days, such people are far outnumbered by those who, for private or professional reasons, have developed more than an incidental interest in the subject.

It is of little use intimating that the interest of the outside world is premature, as has sometimes been suggested. The interest exists, in a genuine, responsible and critical form, and requires a comparably responsible academic reaction. The demand has come mainly from those for whom a conscious awareness of language is an integral part of the exercise of a profession, and upon whom the influence of linguistics has been making itself increasingly felt in recent years.

This characterization includes two main groups: the range of teaching and remedial language professions, such as foreign-language teaching or speech and language therapy; and the range of academic fields which study language as part of their concerns, such as psychology, anthropology, sociology, literary criticism and philosophy.

It also includes an increasing number of students of linguistics — especially those who are taking introductory courses in the subject at postgraduate or in-service levels. In addition, there are the many categories of first-year undergraduate students of linguistics and phonetics, and especially since the early s a corresponding growth in the numbers studying the subject abroad. My aim, accordingly, is to provide a tool which will assist these groups in their initial coming to grips with linguistic terminology, and it is this which motivated the original title of the book in A First Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics.

Coverage Once a decision about readership had been made, the problem of selecting items and senses for inclusion simplified considerably. It is not the case that the whole of linguistic terminology, and all schools of thought, have proved equally attractive or useful to the above groups. Some terms have been used and abused far more than others. On the other hand, there are many highly specialized terms which are unlikely to cause any problems for my intended readership, as they will not encounter them in their initial contact with linguistic ideas.

The detailed terminology of, say, glossematics or stratificational grammar has not made much of an impact on the general consciousness of the above groups.

While I have included several of the more important theoretical terms from these less widely encountered approaches, therefore, I have not presented their terminology in any detail. Likewise, some linguistic theories and descriptions have achieved far greater popularity than others — generative grammar, in all its incarnations, most obviously, and in Great Britain Hallidayan linguistics and the Quirk reference grammar, for example.

The biases of this dictionary, I hope, will be seen to be those already present in the applied and introductory literature — with a certain amount of systematization and filling-out in places, to avoid gaps in the presentation of a topic; for example, whereas many introductory texts selectively illustrate distinctive features, this topic has been systematically covered in the present book. These are terms which, perhaps on account of their less technical appearance, cause especial difficulty at an introductory level.

Particular attention is paid to them in this dictionary, therefore, alongside the more obvious technical terms, such as phoneme, bilabial, adjunction and hyponymy. Bearing in mind the background of my primary readership has helped to simplify the selection of material for inclusion in a second way: the focus was primarily on those terms and senses which have arisen because of the influence of twentieth-century linguistics and phonetics. This dictionary is therefore in contrast with several others, where the aim seems to have been to cover the whole field of language, languages and communication, as well as linguistics and phonetics.

My attitude here is readily summarized: I do not include terms whose sense any good general dictionary would routinely handle, such as alphabet and aphorism. As terms, they owe nothing to the development of ideas in linguistics.

Similarly, while such terms as runic and rhyme-scheme are more obviously technical, their special ranges of application derive from conceptual frameworks other than linguistics. I have therefore not attempted to take on board the huge terminological apparatus of classical rhetoric and literary criticism in its focus on language , or the similarly vast terminology of speech and language disorders.

In the first edition, to keep the focus sharp on the contemporary subject, I was quite rigorous about excluding several types of term, unless they had edged their way into modern linguistics: the terminology of traditional pre-twentieth-century Preface to the Sixth Edition ix language study, comparative philology, applied language studies such as language teaching and speech pathology and related domains such as acoustics, information theory, audiology, logic and philosophy.

However, reader feedback over the years has made it clear that a broader coverage is desirable. Although the definition of, say, bandwidth properly belongs outside of linguistics and phonetics, the frequency with which students encounter the term in their phonetics reading has motivated its inclusion now.

A similar broadening of interest has taken place with reference to psychology especially speech perception , computing and logic especially in formal semantics. The first edition had already included the first tranche of terms arising out of the formalization of ideas initiated by Chomsky such as axiom, algorithm, proposition , the fifth edition greatly increased its coverage in this area, and the sixth has continued this process, with especial reference to the minimalist programme.

Recent decades have also brought renewed interest in nineteenth-century philological studies and traditional grammar. The various editions of the book have steadily increased their coverage of these domains, accordingly though falling well short of a comprehensive account , and this was a particular feature of the fifth edition.

The new edition is now not far short of a quarter of a million words. It contains over 5, terms, identified by items in boldface typography, grouped into over 3, entries. Several other locutions, derived from these headwords, are identified through the use of inverted commas. The definitional parts of the entries, by themselves, were less illuminating than one might have expected; consequently it proved necessary to introduce in addition a more discursive approach, with several illustrations, to capture the significance of a term.

Most entries accordingly contain an element of encyclopedic information, often about such matters as the historical context in which a term was used, or the relationship between a term and others from associated fields. At times, owing to the absence of authoritative studies of terminological development in linguistics, I have had to introduce a personal interpretation in discussing a term; but usually I have obtained my information from standard expositions or see below specialists.

A number of general reference works were listed as secondary sources for further reading in the early editions of this book, but this convention proved unwieldy to introduce for all entries, as the size of the database grew, and was dropped in the fourth edition.

My focus throughout has been on standard usage. Generative grammar, in particular, is full of idiosyncratic terminology devised by individual scholars to draw attention to particular problems; one could fill a whole dictionary with the hundreds of conditions and constraints that have been proposed over the years, many of which are now only of historical interest.

If they attracted a great deal of attention in their day, they have been included; but I have not tried to maintain a historical record of origins, identifying the originators of terms, except in those cases where a whole class of terms had a single point of origin as in the different distinctive-feature sets.

I have tried to make the entries as self-contained as possible, and not relied on obligatory cross-references to other entries to complete the exposition of a sense. I have preferred to work on the principle that, as most dictionary-users open a dictionary with a single problematic term in mind, they should be given a satisfactory account of that term as immediately as possible.

I therefore explain competence under competence, performance under performance, and so on. As a consequence of the interdependence of these terms, however, this procedure means that there must be some repetition: at least the salient characteristics of the term performance must be incorporated into the entry for competence, and vice versa.

This repetition would be a weakness if the book were read from cover to cover; but a dictionary should not be used as a textbook. One of the problems with discursive encyclopedic treatments is that terms can get lost; and a difficulty in tracking terms down, especially within my larger entries, has been a persistent criticism of the book.

I have lost count of the number of times someone has written to say that I should include X in the next edition, when X was already there — in a place which seemed a logical location to me, but evidently not to my correspondent. The biggest change between the fifth and earlier editions was to bite this bullet.

Within an entry, the following conventions should be noted: The main terms being defined are printed in boldface. In the fifth edition, I dropped the convention which some readers found confusing of including inflectional variants immediately after the headword; these are now included in bold within an entry, on their first mention. Terms defined elsewhere in this dictionary are printed in small capitals within an entry disregarding inflectional endings — but only on their first appearance within an entry, and only where their technical status is important for an appreciation of the sense of the entry.

Acknowledgements For the first edition, prepared in , I was fortunate in having several colleagues in my department at Reading University who gave generously of their time to read the text of this dictionary, in whole or in part, advised me on how to proceed in relation to several of the above problems, and pointed out places where my own biases were intruding too markedly: Ron Brasington, Paul Fletcher, Michael Garman, Arthur Hughes, Peter Matthews, Frank Palmer and Irene Warburton.

Hilary, my wife, typed the final version of the whole book and this before word-processors were around! A second edition is in many ways a stronger entity, as it benefits from feedback from reviewers and readers, and among those who spent time improving that edition were K. For the third edition , the need to cover syntactic theory efficiently required special help, which was provided by Ewa Jaworska and Bob Borsley. During the s, the arrival of major encyclopedic projects, such as the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics OUP, and The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics Pergamon, provided an invaluable indication of new terms and senses, as did the series of Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics.

As editor of Linguistics Abstracts at the time, my attention was drawn by the systematic coverage of that journal to several terms which I would otherwise have missed. All these sources provided material for the fourth edition The fifth edition benefited from a review of the fourth edition written by the late and much-missed James McCawley, as well as by material from Lisa Green, William Idsardi, Allard Jongman, Peter Lasersohn and Ronald Wardhaugh, who acted as consultants for sections of vocabulary relating to their specialisms.

It is no longer possible for one person to keep pace with all the developments in this amazing subject, and without them that edition would, quite simply, not have been effective. I am immensely grateful for their interest and commitment, as indeed for that of the editorial in-house team at Blackwells, who arranged it. The fifth edition was also set directly from an XML file, an exercise which could not have proceeded so efficiently without the help of Tony McNicholl.

The sixth edition has continued this policy of standing on the shoulders of specialists, and I warmly acknowledge the assistance of William Idsardi and Allard Jongman xii Acknowledgements for a second time , as well as John Field, Janet Fuller, Michael Kenstowicz, John Saeed, and Hidezaku Tanaka.

As always, I remain responsible for the use I have made of all this help, and continue to welcome comments from readers willing to draw my attention to areas where further progress might be made. The list does not include arbitrary symbols such as category A, B or numerical subscripts or superscripts e.

For phonetic symbols, see p.

A Dictionary Of Linguistics And Phonetics

To sum up, K's book is a high-level, instructive, interesting, and valuable book which may be profitably used by specialists interested in this field. By Johanna Caspers. HIL dissertations , Caspers's published dissertation Leiden University examines how speakers adapt their speech when under severe time constraints. The experimental technique of identifying crucial features of a speech cue by forcing speakers to talk rapidly hinges, of course, on the assumption that the more important a cue is the less likely it will be eliminated or altered. Cs well laid-out book consists of six chapters of discussion comprising roughly ofthe pages; the remainder is taken up primarily with a wealth of appendices.


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Terms to describe speech sounds have proliferated over the years as phoneticians and linguists have freely created and redefined terminology as they saw fit. Recommendations of the IPA are often ignored, and each phonological theory develops new or redefines old terminology to express new concepts. While this creativity enables an author to provide a logically consistent presentation within his or her own work, it also challenges readers, whether they be beginning students or seasoned linguists, to figure out what is intended.

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English Linguistics pp Cite as. Phonetics and phonology are the two branches of linguistics which deal with the properties and functions of sounds. Although they are tightly interrelated, they differ clearly from each other with regard to their research objects and the questions they ask. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.

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A Dictionary of Linguistics & Phonetics, David Crystal, 6th edition

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