File Name: list of agricultural machines and their uses .zip
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Modern farmers have a huge range of equipment options for the various activities they do on an annual basis. From high-tech combine harvesters to simple tractors, the various kinds of farm equipment available can meet the needs of small-scale homesteaders and industrial-size farming operations alike.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Interal Res journa Managt Sci Tech. Sukhwinder Kaur. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. The labourer was employed for the purpose of breaking up land and bringing it under cultivation. But in some regions of Rajasthan and Punjab, buffaloes and camels were used together or separately also for the same work. There were heavy ploughs weighing lbs which had several pairs of animals to pull them Bellary, Mysore.
Rao Bahadur Kelkar in his survey carried out in mentioned that 1 to 5 pairs of animals were needed for such ploughs. The mouldboard type or iron ploughs had superseded the heavy indigenous ploughs. In some areas such as Khandesh, where the moisture level receded very rapidly, heavy duty indigenous ploughs were used.
Places where it was difficult for animals to negotiate, the terrain implements were used manually. There were the spike tooth or peg tooth harrow, the spring tooth harrow, the bar harrow, the drag harrow and the chain harrow. Dutt J. The blade and the toothed types were the most common forms of harrows.
Harrows were generally preferred in clay soil, while toothed were preferred in lighter or gravelly soils. Drag harrow was heavy with curved teeth. The function was to comb the weeds from teeth. The points were round or chisel or duck-foot shaped.
They were used to refine soil for drilling. It was drawn by a pair of bullocks. This implement was used in preparatory tillage, immediately after ploughing to collect grass and weeds. The Ganddla Gandhala was used for digging narrow deep holes for hedging-stakes. Kahi hoe was mostly used for making the irrigation channels. It was also used for all kinds of digging or shoveling earth or even for stubbing up roots.
It was a kind of wooden sledge which J. Voelcker saw at Igatpuri, used for carrying rice seedlings from one place to another for transplanting. In other parts it was called Kudali or hoe which was raised above the farmers head. The most common was hand hoe which is popular till today known as Khurpa, the size varied from region to region. To control larger areas, bullock drawn hoes were used. These were larger spade like blades, two or more in number, directly attached to a head piece which was provided with shaft poles for convenience of yoking to the animals.
Among some others the wheel type hand hoe was found more suitable for inter-row cultivation, having a single wheel carrying a number of tynes was used. This was operated by a man who pushed it in between the rows. The soil was thus leveled, smoothed and to some extent compacted, depending to a great extent on the weight of the plank.
These had the shape of either single logs roughly dressed to rectangular section or two logs attached side by side with a gap in between them, which were superior to the latter.
An interesting variation of plank used in wet cultivation was the hollow plank reported from Madras, Malabar and Vindhya Pradesh. This facilitates the action of puddling by the swirling motion of water in the hollow portion of the plank. Extra weight was added to all types of planks by persons riding on it. Tandem-log clod crushers were used in some parts of Uttar Pradesh and Vindhya Pradesh.
Iron rollers were used in certain localities only such as Karnal and Rohtak. The materials used for roller construction was wood or stone or concrete.
Bombay, Madras as well as Coorg had reported some types of rollers on which a man could ride for placing additional weight. Sowing:The indigenous method of sowing seed was done by dropping the seeds behind the plough or by broadcasting. The farmer sowed his seed through a tube attached to a plough and therefore was able to sow or drill only one row at a time.
Another drill in use had frame which was attached furrow-openers, fixed at a definite distance from each other depending on the desired width between the rows and to each of these openers seed tubes were attached.
On the top of these tubes a cup was securely tied through which the seeds were dropped into furrows. Drill was a hollow tube fixed in the shaft of the plough through which the ploughman dropped the seed grain into the furrow in a better condition.
This was tied to the stock of the plough, the lower end was put into the ground and the cup end was at the level of the driver's hand.
He carried the seed in a cloth strung round his body and dropped it into the cup, making each handful go for a certain number of paces, according to the nature of the seed. Occasionally the seed was thrown or broadcast on the surface of the ground before ploughing and was afterwards ploughed in. When sowing with the drill a stick was sometimes dragged behind the drill for the purpose of covering the seed but this was not always necessary.
One depicts a drill with three channels joined at the top to a single round cup like receptacle; the other depicts two channels, each separated from the other but both joining a common platform at the bottom. Each was drawn by a pair of oxen. Voelcker saw, -at the Saidapet farm was an English seed drill which had been purchased at a cost of Rs. The effectiveness of a small hand-pick was in common use for digging holes and to put seedlings into.
The two-tyned and three-tyned seed drills were most popular and were called Duphan two wheel and Triphan three wheel respectively. One important variation of Duphan was six feet spaced double tyne seed drill used for row sowing of cotton in Gujarat.
This required two persons to drop the seeds. This enabled uniform distribution of the seeds in the tubes located readily around the cone. A seed drill having an unusually heavy construction and draft was reported in use from Bombay which required two pairs of bullocks to operate it. The reason for this seems to be that the seeds had to be dropped at 4 inches to 5 inches depths in heavy soils in order to reach the moisture line. To maintain the spacing between successive runs with a multi-tyned seed drill, the bullocks were hitched suitably along the yoke.
The front edge of the lower portion of the scoop was kept sharp and was made of good iron. The implement was simple in construction. The earth scoops or bullockoperated buck scrapers were reported from Punjab, Madras and Vindhya Pradesh.
One interesting type of leveller-cum-clod crusher was the ladder type leveller made wholly of bamboo or wood reported from West Bengal and Assam. This made it easier to irrigate land sown with wheat etc. It consisted of a flat board about three to four feet long, about five inches wide and one inch thick.
At the centre of the board a pole about five feet long was attached. Near the ends of the flat board, two rings were attached for fastening a rope.
This was operated by one man holding the pole slightly on one side of the place where the ridge was to be made and slightly pressing downwards and another man held the rope and pulled it towards himself. In this way a ridge was made. There were wide varieties of shape and sizes of sickles in use throughout the country. The differences in shapes and sizes were occasioned by the types of crops to be dealt with. For harvesting of thick stemmed crops like sugarcane and woody stemmed plants, bill hooks and hand choppers were used.
In parts of Madras state, crow bar with flattened cutting edge was used for harvesting sugarcane. Beating with sticks or trampling with feet was the time-honoured method of threshing the ears of corn. Voelcker, the threshing machines and winnowers were used for the cleaning of grain and wheat but it was only used on large estates.
The indigo planters and Europeans felt the utility of the threshing machines as they saved time and they broke and chipped the wheat a good deal. These were the threshing rollers, the Olpod thresher and the combined thresher-winnower. The threshing roller was made of stone or concrete and used in the Southern districts of Mumbai, 51 Mysore, Rayalaseema and parts of Salem Chennai. Then there was a flail which consisted of a crooked stick and was called Gesla or Kutka.
The mixed grain and straw were first tossed into the air with pitchfork and grain separated from the straw. The grain was taken up in a winnowing basket called Chhaj and allowed to fall from above the thresher's head, the wind blew the remaining straw and chaff away from the grain.
Winnowing baskets Chhaj were made of the thick stalks of Sirkana grass. The broken straw or Bhusa was carefully stored in a sheltered place near the well and the grain was stored in Kothis or granaries for sale or in Bharolas for household use. A number of sieves to separate the grain were also provided in some machines. Various types were available the most popular was Nilokheri Fan designed at the workshop of the Extension Training Centre, Nilokheri, it proved very successful.
The Allahabad fan was designed by Mr. Mason Vaugh, agricultural engineer at the Allahabad Agricultural Institute. It consisted of short fan blades, the axle being rotated by means of a big and small pulley and a rope belt. The Nagpur fan was worked by means of a cycle chain, a sprocket and a free wheel. A man stood on a high stool for better clearance so that the fan could be moved around. Poona fan was designed at the Agricultural Engineer's Workshop, Poona.
Agricultural equipment is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. The best-known example of this kind is the tractor. Coffee bean Harvester, Mareeba, Queensland , Australia. Media related to Agricultural machines at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. Main article: Agricultural machinery.
Department of Agriculture of Chhattisgarh provides information on crops, seeds, fertilizer consumption, bio-culture, etc. Information on performance of agriculture in the state is given. Details of services such as agri-subsidy, seed procurement, agri-budget, etc. Agriculture forms, animal husbandry forms, seed certification forms, etc. Related information like fee Details on development of improved farm implements and machinery as seed drills for dry sowing of rice, energy requirements in agricultural sector, improved leveller, tractor harvester for rice, etc. Get information about improved post harvest processes, equipment and storage structure,
Agricultural machinery devices are used to cultivate and harvest crops. They used Agricultural tools to keep soil loosened and sharp to harvest the ripened crops. This Modification of early implements led to the development of small hand tools that are used in. The most important of modern agriculture is the tractor. It provides many other implements and furnishes power for the operation of machines drawn behind the tractor.
Agricultural equipment is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. The best-known example of this kind is the tractor. Tractor "Belarus " from Minsk Tractor Works · Unimog with a flail hedge and verge trimmer implement used in agroforestry Print/export. Download as PDF · Printable version.
Putting together an ideal machinery system is not easy. Equipment that works best one year may not work well the next because of changes in weather conditions or crop production practices. Improvements in design may make older equipment obsolete. And, the number of acres being farmed or the amount of labor available may change.
Ком… мандер, - задыхаясь, пробормотала она, сбитая с толку. - Я думала… я думала, что вы наверху… я слышала… - Успокойся, - прошептал .
В разговор вмешался новый участник. - Д-директор. Все повернулись к экрану. Это был агент Колиандер из Севильи. Он перегнулся через плечо Беккера и заговорил в микрофон: - Не знаю, важно ли это, но я не уверен, что мистер Танкадо знал, что он пал жертвой покушения. - Прошу прощения? - проговорил директор.
Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола. - Травматическая пуля, - задумчиво повторил Беккер. - Вот откуда шрам. - Весьма сомнительно, чтобы Танкадо связал свои ощущения с выстрелом. - И все же он отдал кольцо, - сказал Фонтейн. - Вы правы, сэр.
- Максимальное время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ когда-либо тратил на один файл, составляет три часа. Это включая диагностику, проверку памяти и все прочее. Единственное, что могло бы вызвать зацикливание протяженностью в восемнадцать часов, - это вирус. Больше нечему. - Вирус. - Да, какой-то повторяющийся цикл.
Он козырьком поднес руку к глазам и стал разглядывать шпили над внушительным фасадом. - Смотрите внимательно, - предупредил Смит. - Халохот - профессионал. Это его первый выстрел в публичном месте. Смит был прав. Между деревьев в левой части кадра что-то сверкнуло, и в то же мгновение Танкадо схватился за грудь и потерял равновесие.
Терминал пискнул. СЛЕДОПЫТ ЗАПУЩЕН Сьюзан знала, что пройдет несколько часов, прежде чем Следопыт вернется.
Different machinery and equipment are used in every area of the agricultural industry. – Livestock production. – Horticulture. – Forestry. – Crop production.Badabisor 13.05.2021 at 08:59
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