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Spirulina In Human Nutrition And Health Pdf

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Spirulina is a microalgae that has been consumed for centuries due to its high nutritional value and supposed health benefits. Today, popular lifestyle personalities endorse Spirulina as a secret, potent "superfood," and a "miracle from the sea. The Aztecs harvested Spirulina from Lake Texcoco in central Mexico, and it is still harvested from Lake Chad in west-central Africa and turned into dry cakes.

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Metrics details. Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infections they have reverse effects on the nutritional status. The diet supplementation with a natural nutraceutical rich in proteins and micronutrient like Spirulina platensis , may be effective and efficient in delaying HIV disease progression by frequently reported improvement in immune response. Participants received either S. Selected hematological and biochemical as well as CD4 count cells, viral load copies were assessed at three separate times.

The significant increase of CD4 count cells A daily supplementation with S. Further studies are recommended among a large specific group of people infected by the HIV in order to investigate the mechanisms involved on the effect of S.

Peer Review reports. In Cameroon, about 4. Poverty and food insecurity impacts feeding habits and the reduce access to a nutrition rich in macro and micronutrients which lead to the health impairment mainly in HIV patients [ 3 ]. Malnutrition potentialises the effects of HIV infection on the individual by promoting chronic fatigue and disease progression, the latter lead to the morbidity and earlier death [ 4 ]. Malnutrition is an important factor that affects the care of patients infected by the HIV, their treatment and it contributes to the development of opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis [ 5 , 6 ].

Malnutrition and HIV also have similar deleterious effects on the immune system and in both cases there are reduced CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte levels and impaired serological response after immunizations [ 7 ].

The synergistic effects of malnutrition and HIV on the immune system occur in a vicious cycle in which the decrease of immunity associated with higher risk of development of other infectious diseases. International organizations have called for food assistance to be integrated into HIV treatment and prevention programs, but evidence-based guidance on how exactly to implement such programs, on what beneficiaries to target, and on what the optimal components or duration of food assistance should be not yet well described [ 9 ].

To fight against nutrients deficiency mainly to HIV patients, the World Health Organization WHO recommends nutrients intake of each required micronutrients, which may be taken through nutrient supplementation [ 6 , 11 ]. Due to the difficulties to access to a balanced diet, Spirulina platensis a cyanobacterium available in sub-Saharan Africa has been used as food source. Several studies demonstrated beneficial effects of S. In addition, some studies show that spirulina has beneficial effects on the treatment of malnutrition and on other pathologies such as obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus [ 15 — 17 ].

This study was performed, to assess the potential effects of 10 grams of daily supplementation of S. We carried out a longitudinal study in a randomized cohort from January to February Informed consent was obtained from every subject prior to the participation for the study.

Investigation and intervention were carried out at the Etoug-Ebe Health Center. Selected participants subjects were included in the study.

They were divided into two groups: 87 subjects to the control group first group and 82 subjects to the intervention group second group. The two groups were matched with respect to age, sex, and CD4 cells counts. At the inclusion in the study, patients had been fasting for at least eight hours overnight. The S. The next six months were for the follow-up without S. To monitor the biological parameters a standardized questionnaire for demographic characteristics, clinical, quality of live was filled by the subjects at the baseline, during and at the end of the trial.

Flow chart describing progress of participants through the Spirulina platensis supplementation trial. The first tube was used to determine the CD4 lymphocytes count by all patients. Chi-square was performed to determine the significance of differences in the prevalence of opportunistic infections in both groups.

The statistical SPSS program version Results were considered significant at p -value less than 0. A total of patients were enrolled on the study among them 50 men and female Fig. The women were more represented with a sex ratio of 2.

These patients were dropped out because there were HIV—negative due to the error of screening test 6. The results presented the demography of the population of study showed that there were more women The two groups control and spirulina were similar with respect to age, sex. The mean age was The value of the BMI was no significantly differences during the twelve months in both groups. No significant difference was observed in fasting blood sugar in both groups at the first 6 six months.

These results demonstrated that S. To investigate the effects of S. The results of the CD4 cells count showed that at the baseline of the study there was no significant variation between patients of control and spirulina group. In contrary, the viral load of the spirulina group significantly reduced while that of the control group increase significantly during the experiment Fig. Variation of CD4 cells count during the period of experiment. Variation of viral load of the groups during the experiment.

This present randomized control study included patients divided into two groups either 87 control group or 82 spirulina group.

In addition, adequate nutritional status supports immunity and physical performance [ 6 , 11 ]. This result also corroborates studies which report that adequate nutrition promotes and maintains optimal immune function [ 19 ]. We demonstrated in this study that supplementation with S. The improvement of the well-being of the patients through the regression of opportunistic diseases was also found in this group compared to the control group.

This result confirms that individuals receiving S. Several investigators have shown that adequate nutrition associated with or without education and counseling can improve nutritional status both during stable treatment free period and during severe episodes of the infection [ 20 ]. This result is due to the presence of a large amount of macro and micronutrient identified in S. Several studies confirmed the beneficial effects of S.

Extract of S. Also several in vitro and in vivo antiviral mechanisms of S. Therefore, the stuck virus cannot replicate and should be eliminate by natural defense of the body; ii the calcium-spirulant Ca-SP and sodium spirulant Na-SP found in the S. This clinical trial demonstrated that six months supplementation of S. Daily consumption of S. Other studies need to be conducted on the HIV-naive patients to elucidate this mechanism.

Lipid Health Dis. Kalofonos IP. Med Anthropol Q. Gillespie S, Kadayila S. Food Policy. Google Scholar. Friis H. Micronutrient interventions and HIV infection: a review of current evidence. Trop Med Int Health. Addressing tuberculosis in the context of malnutrition and HIV co infection.

Food Nutr Bull. Tabi M, Vogel RL. Nutritional counselling: an intervention for HIV-positive patients. J Adv Nurs. Geneva: WHO; Food assistance is associated with improved body mass index, food security and attendance at clinic in an HIV program in central Haiti: a prospective observational cohort study. Role of nutrition in HIV infection: review of evidence for more effective programming in resource-limited settings.

Food Nut Bull. Bhavisha R, Parula P. Spirulina: Potential clinical therapeutic application. J Pharm Res. Chem Pharm Bull. Effects of nutritional education and lifestyle modification on the nutritional status of HIV positive patients: results of a cluster randomized intervention over a period of six months. Global Epidemic Obesity. Exercise and spirulina control nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats. Antidiabetic property of spirulina. Diabetol Croat. Nutritional interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality in people with HIV Cochrane.

Database Syst Rev. Nutritional supplementation in HIV-infected individuals in South India: a prospective interventional study. Clin Infect Dis. Current knowledge on potential health benefits of spiruline. J Appl Phys. Clin Infect Dis, ;36 8 —

Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health

Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Multiple studies investigating the efficacy and the potential clinical applications of Spirulina in treating several diseases have been performed and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve several symptoms and may even have an anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic effects. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. Areas of ongoing and future research are also discussed.

Tang, G ; Suter, P M Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences, 1 2 Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids especially provitamin A carotenoids and other nutrients, such as vitamin B

19 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) and Spirulina 20 1 2 Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health Environmental Aspects of.

Index of /library/Food Science books/batch2

This study investigated the biochemical suitability of Australian native microalgal species Scenedesmus sp. The four microalgal cultures were harvested during exponential growth, lyophilized, and analysed for proximate composition moisture, ash, lipid, carbohydrates, and protein , pigments, and amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The resulting nutritional value, based on biochemical composition, was compared to commercial Spirulina and Chlorella products. These findings indicate that the microalgae assessed have great potential as multi-nutrient human health supplements. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Metrics details. Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infections they have reverse effects on the nutritional status. The diet supplementation with a natural nutraceutical rich in proteins and micronutrient like Spirulina platensis , may be effective and efficient in delaying HIV disease progression by frequently reported improvement in immune response.

Spirulina is a biomass of cyanobacteria blue-green algae that can be consumed by humans and animals. The three species are Arthrospira platensis , A.

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The present study aimed to characterize the nutraceutical properties and the antimicrobial effect of Moroccan Spirulina Arthrospira platensis. The nutritional composition was evaluated, including water content, crude protein, total carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic composition, macro- and micromineral content, fiber content, and energy value. Then, the microbiological analysis and antioxidant activity were measured.

 Я возьму это на себя, - улыбнулась она, вставая.  - Буду у своего терминала. - Как ты думаешь, сколько времени это займет. - Ну… - задумалась Сьюзан.  - Это зависит от оперативности, с которой ARA пересылает почту. Если адресат находится в Штатах и пользуется такими провайдерами, как Америка онлайн или Компьюсерв, я отслежу его кредитную карточку и получу его учетную запись в течение часа.

 Слабое сердце… да к тому же еще испанская жара. Не забывай и о сильнейшем стрессе, связанном с попыткой шантажировать наше агентство… Сьюзан замолчала. Какими бы ни были обстоятельства, она почувствовала боль от потери талантливого коллеги-криптографа. Мрачный голос Стратмора вывел ее из задумчивости. - Единственный луч надежды во всей этой печальной истории - то, что Танкадо путешествовал. Есть шанс, что его партнер пока ничего не знает. Испанские власти обещали придержать информацию - столько, сколько смогут.

И ТРАНСТЕКСТ больше не нужен. Никаких ограничений - только свободная информация. Это шанс всей вашей жизни. И вы хотите его упустить.

Стратмор медленно повернулся. Он являл собой печальное зрелище. - Это сделаю я, - сказал он, встал и, спотыкаясь, начал выбираться из-за стола. Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место. - Нет! - рявкнула .

Он по-прежнему показывал время, превышающее пятнадцать часов. Даже если файл Танкадо будет прочитан прямо сейчас, это все равно будет означать, что АНБ идет ко дну. С такими темпами шифровалка сумеет вскрывать не больше двух шифров в сутки.

Левый угол пуст. Следуя плану, он бросился в проход и, оказавшись внутри, лицом к правому углу, выстрелил. Пуля отскочила от голой стены и чуть не попала в него. Он стремительно развернулся и едва сдержал крик. Никого.

Но он так долго трудился над Цифровой крепостью, что вряд ли ему захотелось бы к ней возвращаться. Сьюзан понадобилось некоторое время, чтобы все это осмыслить. Она вдруг поняла стремление коммандера к необычайной секретности в шифровалке.

 - Это сделаешь. ГЛАВА 48 - Что? - воскликнула Мидж, не веря своим ушам.  - Стратмор говорит, что у нас неверные данные. Бринкерхофф кивнул и положил трубку. - Стратмор отрицает, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над каким-то файлом восемнадцать часов.

Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

В течение первого часа они, казалось, даже не замечали его присутствия. Обступив громадный стол, они говорили на языке, которого Беккеру прежде никогда не доводилось слышать, - о поточных шифрах, самоуничтожающихся генераторах, ранцевых вариантах, протоколах нулевого понимания, точках единственности. Беккер наблюдал за ними, чувствуя себя здесь лишним.

Кольцо, которое отдает умирающий, - дурная примета. - Вы знаете эту девушку? - Беккер приступил к допросу. Брови Росио выгнулись.

Шум и мелькающие огни в шифровалке делали ее похожей на стартовую площадку ракеты. Хейл зашевелился и в ответ на каждое завывание сирены начал моргать. Неожиданно для самой себя Сьюзан схватила беретту, и Хейл, открыв глаза, увидел ее, стоящую с револьвером в руке, нацеленным ему в низ живота. - Где ключ? - потребовала .

Ты очень бледна.  - Затем повернулся и вышел из комнаты.


Montague R. 26.05.2021 at 13:16

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PDF | Spirulina microalgae (Spirulina platensis, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina fusiformis) is considered as a better uptake and diminished risk of harmful health ef- wide use of selenium yeast in human nutrition, as they.