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In This Issue: Thoughts A noted philosopher defines his trade. Page 2. Editorial "But Is It Appropriate? Page 3. Typographic Milestones The story of Claude Garamondpublic genius and personal failure. Page 4. Tinkelman Takes In a Powwow Illustrator Murray Tinkelman discovers some things "old" and some things "new" in a traditional Indian ritual. Page 8. Page It will be read by over 1,, people. Like a dia- mond, its beauty and value depend on the ome messages require maximal stress on clarity, oth- ers on vitality and still others some balance sage and its purpose require objectivity, often a pause in the cre- ative surge, to ask not only if the design is to remind ourselves thatas much as we need clarity, vitality and craftmanshipif an ex- quisitely designed piece number of facets for its between them.
All mes- exciting or strong or is misaimed it isn't an brilliant sparkle. Appropriateness: the just a few. It must work. It clarity some elements are most suitable to the must communicate. The of which are legibility, tone and content of the best art design profes- readability, order, message, the nature and sionals know this and emphasis vitality intent of the sender, the practice this albeit sub- affected by such con- needs, desires and orien- consciously daily.
But, siderations as size, color, tation of the receiver. Analyzing a mes- s people without design training or experience move into the world of design- decision- making it seems timely. Col- ,u4mos6 tiont. OPGIS ti-rn. ITC Garamond. Claude Garamond spent much of Claude Garamond was the most phy; such that when he returned to The first typefaces were upright his time dissatisfied. Ironic, because distinguished type designer of his France and established himself as a designs: the gothics of northern today he is one of the most respec- time, perhaps of the whole Renais- bookseller, engraver and printer, he Europe and the romans of Italy.
A true typographic innova- soon became the most powerful There were no italics. Italic type- viduals in typographic history. His tor, he was instrumental in the adop- pro-Italian influence in these crafts. In the Renaissance, knowledge he was one of the first to establish letter. He was one of the first type Garamond was one of Tory's most ardent followers.
Thus it was that through reading first became acces- type-founding as a separate enter- designers to create obliqued capi- sible to common people, but books prise, and his work was in demand tals to complement an italic lower- the type he created under Tory's direction followed the roman style were still very elaborate and by the finest printers of 16th cen- case; and to create an italic design expensive.
Sensing the need and tury France. Garamond was clearly as the specific companion to a of letter which was then prevalent in Italy. Through Tory's enthusiastic economic opportunity for a rea- the most important type designer roman type style.
Garamond was sonably priced product, publishers and punch cutter of his time; and a pioneer. Rich Like many exceptionally creative punch cutter, roman letterforms Garamond's work brought him people, Garamond's genius was began to replace blackletter as the ornamentation and grand illustra- into close contact with the most released as the result of the influ- French typographic norm. It has, in tions were the first to disappear prominent, influential, and wealthi- ence of another.
Geofroy Tory was fact, been said that were it not'for from these forerunners of the mod- est patrons of the French book Garamond's catalyst. Tory was what the work of Garamond, the French ern "paperback.
This was the source of his dis- we like to refer to as "the typical like the Germans would have books was decreased to save paper. He soon became dis- Renaissance scholar;' a many-sided been reading blackletter well into As books became smaller, type was enchanted with his own small genius.
Originally a teacher of phi- the 20th century. Readabil- opportunities and profits as a type losophy, he developed an enthusi- ity soon began to suffer. In an at- designer and founder. In the intro- asm and love for typography and The genealogy of our current alpha- tempt to return acceptable levels of duction to a book on which he the graphic arts. This led to ener- bet is both mixed and compli- readability to these inexpensive collaborated he complained that getic experimentation in engraving, cated.
The present standard of a books, printers began to cast type his work, "feathers the nest of pub- printing, and eventually publishing. This responding italic and bold designs less space than traditional romans.
Left: Claude P. Printing Office, established in Paris Like many designers of the period, typefounding business he could by Cardinal Richelieu, almost a Garamond also created italic type- Garamond is generally credited hundred years after Garamond's begin to rectify the differences in with establishing the first type faces for this new kind of book; but monetary rewards. The trouble was death. Richelieu used the type, his italics had complementary slop- foundry.
He was the first designer to referred to as the Caracteres de that publishing was a very expen- create faces, cut punches, and then ing capital letters. While he did not sive business to enter into in the l'Universite, in the printing of his start the trend, his designs were so sell the type produced from the book, Les Principaux Poincts de la first place.
Garamond eventually punches. Unfortunately, Garamond important that they set the prece- found a business partner in Jean de Foy Catholique Defendus. It is on dent for future work. Perhaps even also had little success in this busi- this type that most of the modern Gagny, then Chancellor of the Sor- ness.
In fact, he died owning little more basic to current standards of bonne. Gagny promised to give Garamonds are based. Prior was forced to sell even these. Eventually they were distinctively different purposes. In Frederic Goudy com- Garamond created orderly and the scheme went forward. Two Europe. They found their way to elegant typefaces in which all the pleted Garamont, a similar design italics were cut and shown to po- Holland via Christopher Plantin; to inspired by the same source, for parts: capitals, lowercase, and italic tential collaborators.
The English were deemed favorable, and in the executor of the Garamond Monotype Company followed in to the typographic whole. It is , Garamond presented his estate; and into Italy via Guillaume because of his undeniable creativ- with its own interpretation of italic to the French court and was Le Be, one of Garamond's students.
Garamond, again inspired by the ity and regard for typographic granted a three year copyright to His work was emulated and copied integrity that it seems so out of Caracteres de l'Universite. Once the design. The following year his in nearly all of literary Europe. In again the Garamond designs were character for Garamond's first first book was published.
France Garamond's work became a italics to have been copies. Some of his thoroughly documented article by orators. Jannon was a of the most celebrated historians of Finally, over a period of five years, printer and punch cutter in Paris. Imprimerie National in Paris, International Typeface Corpora- which, two years later, printed two the typographic arts. Few people Early in his career he came into men or women have surpassed tion, released a large Garamond contact with, and was obviously specimen books showing the type family of sixteen designs.
This most and attributing it to Garamond. At her accomplishments. In the early17th century, the turn of the century, The Direc- Meanwhile, other Garamond de- lineage brings the design concept Jannon's Protestant sympathies tor of the French National Printing signs were created, based on the full circle. ITC Garamond was cre- took him to Sedan, north of Paris, Office studied the available material type actually produced by Claude ated as a harmonious family of where he worked in a Calvinist and announced that the type was Garamond.
George Jones of Eng- faces in which all the variations are academy. Because he had difficulty the work of Claude Garamond. Over a Mazarin Library in Paris, and after London, and for some unknown reason was not named Garamond, died virtually penniless would period of time, friction between careful and exhaustive research was influence the design of a score of Jannon and the authorities in Sedan able to prove that Garamond types but Granjon, who was a contempo- rary of Garamond's.
In , both typeface families bearing his name; resulted in his return to Paris. The revelation caused a sistently popular type styles of the sensation in the typographic world actual type of Claude Garamond. Jannon perhaps equaled only by the The Fleuron article did little to revelation that the man, Paul Beau- affect the popularity of the Jannon- Like most people, Garamond had was forced to leave Paris; but not frailties.
Unlike most people, he was before his type and punches were jon, was actually Beatrice Warde based Garamond designs. They in writing under a pseudonym. He was responsi- These eventually found their way Printing and typography was foundries duplicated the style; Intertype in , Mergenthaler ble for popularizing the current into the French National Printing "man's business" at the turn of the standards of harmony in type Office, where they were used by century and Ms.
Warde must have Linotype in , and even Mono- type in The Linotype version family development, and for pro- Richelieu. The type was then felt that no one would believe the viding the typographic community placed in the Printing Office ar- theories of a mere woman.
This is called Garamond No. While Murray Tinkelman is himself amused by this Cowboy-and-Indian sequence of involvements, it would be a mistake to assume there was anything logical or calculated about it. The cow- boy drawings were work-related.
He started to hunt down "friendly neigh-. POW borhood rodeos" in upstate New York to make studies for a series of Zane Grey paperback covers he was illustrat- ing. But his infatuation with Indians grew out of a serendipitous encounter with a powwow of Plains Indians in Cody, Wyoming. Tinkelman was stunned by the sights and sounds and colorby the mysteri- ous ritualistic songs, dances and cos- tumes. But what really blew his mind were the anachronismsthe sunglasses poking out of ceremonial headdresses, the numbered placards dangling from leather tunics, along with the feathers and beads, and Pepsi bottles hoisted to contestants' lips between events.
Tinkelman clicked away with his camera and brought home a wealth of reference material for a new series of drawings.
In This Issue: Thoughts A noted philosopher defines his trade. Page 2. Editorial "But Is It Appropriate? Page 3. Typographic Milestones The story of Claude Garamondpublic genius and personal failure. Page 4. Tinkelman Takes In a Powwow Illustrator Murray Tinkelman discovers some things "old" and some things "new" in a traditional Indian ritual.
Refworks Account Login. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. Carruthers, Ian Robert. University of British Columbia. While Henryson's Testament of Cresseid and Orpheus and Eury-dice have received considerable critical attention and acclaim, his longest and most ambitious work, The Morall Fabillis of Esope, has been largely neglected; with the exception of one thesis Jamieson: Edinburgh, , it has either received summary treatment in surveys or else been subject to critical selection. This has unfortunately prevented the true stature of the poet and the virtuosity of his work from being appreciated as they deserve, and my thesis is an attempt to rectify this situation by treating the Fabillis in close detail and as a sequence.
Cl n a t v e u n dttscape s Natural seedr jng b u sn esses are a takng off. Low: 68 Hozywlt portly clol loudyfklet and worm wootnor. Depactnent of AcrcuHu Hure fer ths crop. FnHt and vegeta ;etabl s were nol tndaded n the F un n a Bn. T h a t was to p s n dalo, dares n parts oft W n Falls.
reports at conferences as well, and grades for students in middle elementary school program is the constant attention of a single For example, children will be with the same teacher in grades 1, 2, and Scholarship of Teaching & Learning Leadership Award Competition. Dancing through chool Vol.
Для имени нужна торговая марка, а не патент. - А мне без разницы. - Панк не понимал, к чему клонит Беккер. Пестрое сборище пьяных и накачавшихся наркотиками молодых людей разразилось истерическим хохотом. Двухцветный встал и с презрением посмотрел на Беккера.
Возле фреоновых помп. Сьюзан повернулась и направилась к двери, но на полпути оглянулась. - Коммандер, - сказала. - Это еще не конец. Мы еще не проиграли. Если Дэвид успеет найти кольцо, мы спасем банк данных. Стратмор ничего не .
Ее белая блузка промокла насквозь и прилипла к телу. Было темно. Сьюзан остановилась, собираясь с духом. Звук выстрела продолжал звучать у нее в голове. Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению. Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле. Когда глаза Сьюзан немного привыкли к темноте, она посмотрела на дыру, зияющую в стеклянной стене.
Казалось, Стратмор ее не слышал.
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