File Name: medium carbon steel properties and uses .zip
Steel is such a powerful element, coming in several distinct grades and holding unique chemical compositions.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content from about 0. The term carbon steel may also be used in reference to steel which is not stainless steel ; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels. High carbon steel has many different uses such as milling machines, cutting tools such as chisels and high strength wires. These applications require a much finer microstructure, which improves the toughness.
As the carbon percentage content rises, steel has the ability to become harder and stronger through heat treating ; however, it becomes less ductile. Regardless of the heat treatment, a higher carbon content reduces weldability. In carbon steels, the higher carbon content lowers the melting point. Mild steel iron containing a small percentage of carbon, strong and tough but not readily tempered , also known as plain-carbon steel and low-carbon steel, is now the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications.
Mild steel contains approximately 0. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and easy to form; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing.
In applications where large cross-sections are used to minimize deflection, failure by yield is not a risk so low-carbon steels are the best choice, for example as structural steel.
The density of mild steel is approximately 7. Low-carbon steels display yield-point runout where the material has two yield points. The first yield point or upper yield point is higher than the second and the yield drops dramatically after the upper yield point. High-tensile steels are low-carbon, or steels at the lower end of the medium-carbon range, [ citation needed ] which have additional alloying ingredients in order to increase their strength, wear properties or specifically tensile strength.
These alloying ingredients include chromium , molybdenum , silicon , manganese , nickel and vanadium. Impurities such as phosphorus or sulphur have their maximum allowable content restricted. Carbon steels which can successfully undergo heat-treatment have a carbon content in the range of 0.
Trace impurities of various other elements can have a significant effect on the quality of the resulting steel. Trace amounts of sulfur in particular make the steel red-short , that is, brittle and crumbly at working temperatures. Low-alloy carbon steel, such as A36 grade, contains about 0. These additions turn the material into a low-alloy steel by some definitions, but AISI 's definition of carbon steel allows up to 1.
Carbon steel is broken down into four classes based on carbon content: . Approximately 0. Approximately 1. Used for special purposes like non-industrial-purpose knives, axles or punches. Most steels with more than 2. The purpose of heat treating carbon steel is to change the mechanical properties of steel, usually ductility, hardness, yield strength, or impact resistance.
Note that the electrical and thermal conductivity are only slightly altered. As with most strengthening techniques for steel, Young's modulus elasticity is unaffected. All treatments of steel trade ductility for increased strength and vice versa. Iron has a higher solubility for carbon in the austenite phase; therefore all heat treatments, except spheroidizing and process annealing, start by heating the steel to a temperature at which the austenitic phase can exist.
The steel is then quenched heat drawn out at a moderate to low rate allowing carbon to diffuse out of the austenite forming iron-carbide cementite and leaving ferrite, or at a high rate, trapping the carbon within the iron thus forming martensite. Generally speaking, cooling swiftly will leave iron carbide finely dispersed and produce a fine grained pearlite and cooling slowly will give a coarser pearlite.
Cooling a hypoeutectoid steel less than 0. If it is hypereutectoid steel more than 0. A eutectoid steel 0. The relative amounts of constituents are found using the lever rule.
The following is a list of the types of heat treatments possible:. Case hardening processes harden only the exterior of the steel part, creating a hard, wear resistant skin the "case" but preserving a tough and ductile interior. Carbon steels are not very hardenable meaning they can not be hardened throughout thick sections.
Alloy steels have a better hardenability, so they can be through-hardened and do not require case hardening. This property of carbon steel can be beneficial, because it gives the surface good wear characteristics but leaves the core flexible and shock-absorbing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Steel in which the main interstitial alloying constituent is carbon. See also: SAE steel grades. Main article: Heat treatment. Main article: Case hardening. Maraging steel Precipitation-hardened high-strength steels. Eglin steel A low-cost precipitation-hardened high-strength steel. Retrieved 25 May Metal Exponents Blog". Metal Exponents. Retrieved 29 January Central European Journal of Engineering. Bibcode : CEJE Metall Mater Trans A.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Ferrite Austenite Cementite Graphite Martensite. Chromium-vanadium steel. Austenitic chromium—nickel steel. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carbon steel.
The world of carbon steels can be challenging to wrap your head around. There are many different options to choose from, and each type of steel has different benefits. The main differentiating factor is the amount of carbon that is mixed with iron during production. Other materials, mainly metals, can be added to change the physical properties. Notably, chromium is added to form stainless steel, while other additives can change tensile strength, ductility, or toughness. Low carbon steels such as , or grades of stainless are typically used in applications which require high degrees of corrosion resistance but do not require a hardened surface. The carbon content of these steels typically range between 0.
Steel, a term that actually describes an entire family of metal alloys, is a versatile and common type of metal with a wide variety of applications and uses. There are many grades but most types of steel fall into two broad categories, carbon steels and stainless steels. Though they have the same basic composition of iron and carbon, steel types tend to have a variety of alloying elements. Carbon steel tends to have under These differences give each type of steel its respective properties. Stainless steel refers to a type of steel which is defined by the addition of chromium, and some other alloying elements such as nickel.
Steel is often categorized according to its carbon content. All steel contains at least some amount of carbon. After all, steel is defined as an alloy of iron and carbon. Without the presence of carbon, it would simply be iron. By adding carbon to it, the metal becomes stronger and harder.
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Steels are widely used materials in the industry.