File Name: overchoice and assortment type when and why variety backfires .zip
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Ulf Bockenholt. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Available online at www. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. E-mail address: ach kellogg. Chernev et al. Overview of the analyzed studies. Reanalyzing the data from prior meta-analytic research. Because of its Our analysis is organized as follows. First, we discuss the pros importance, the topic of how product assortment influences and cons of large assortments, focusing on how assortment size consumer choice has generated a substantial amount of interest influences individual decision processes.
This is followed by a across different research domains, including economics, analytical conceptual analysis of the antecedents of choice overload, in and empirical modeling, individual and group decision making, which we identify four key drivers that are likely to influence the and social psychology Broniarczyk, ; Chernev, ; Kahn, impact of assortment size on choice overload.
This research concludes with a discussion in which we Within assortment research, the topic of the negative highlight our theoretical contributions, discuss the managerial consequences of large assortments has attracted a disproportion- implications, and outline directions for future research. Building on these findings, recent research has hinder choice. The most intuitive benefit, featured prominently in moved beyond simply documenting choice overload to identify- economics research, is that the greater the number of options in the ing its antecedents and boundary conditions.
It has further been argued that diverse independent and dependent variables. Prior research has shown that consumers may delay their findings of the individual studies. We then propose a conceptual purchasing because they are uncertain about the degree to which model that identifies four key factors that influence the impact of the available set is representative of the entire roster of possible assortment size on choice overload.
To illustrate, consumers might feel more confident when selecting from a retailer that offers a larger assortment because Choice overload in individual decision making it is less likely that a potentially superior alternative is not represented in the available choice set. The term choice overload—also referred to as overchoice— Despite their multiple benefits, larger assortments have a is typically used in reference to a scenario in which the number of important drawbacks.
Prior research has shown that the complexity of the decision problem faced by an individual benefits of greater variety are, at least partially, offset by a exceeds the individual's cognitive resources Simon, ; corresponding increase in the cognitive costs associated with Toffler, In this research, our main focus is on a particular choosing from a larger assortment.
In this context, it has been type of choice overload—one in which the decision complexity shown that reducing the size of an assortment can actually increase is caused, at least partially, by the large number of available the purchase likelihood from that assortment.
Behavioral consequences of choice overload, on the other It has further been argued that larger assortments tend to hand, include factors that capture consumer actions such as the shift consumers' ideal points in a way that makes them more likelihood of deferring choice, the likelihood of reversing an difficult to attain Chernev, b; Schwartz et al. Consequently, it has been proposed decreased preference for larger assortments, and greater that choices from larger assortments can lead to disconfirmation preference for easily justifiable options.
Thus, compared to of consumer expectations, resulting in greater choice deferral individuals not experiencing choice overload, those experienc- and lower satisfaction with the chosen option. We discuss the antecedents and consequences , and 4 more likely to choose an option that can be of choice overload in more detail in the following sections.
Note that the above indicators of choice overload do not Choice overload in consumer decision making represent a complete list of all viable measures of choice overload; rather, these are the measures that represent the most We start by discussing prior research examining the impact of common decision scenarios and have been frequently utilized assortment size on choice overload to underscore the importance by prior research.
Recent assortment research has identified a number of Building on prior research in the domain of behavioral important antecedents and consequences of choice overload. Here, task factors describe the general structural overload, it also complicates generalization of the findings of characteristics of the decision problem, including number of the individual studies because different experiments use diverse alternatives, number of attributes describing each option, time independent and dependent variables.
Indeed, whereas numer- constraints, decision accountability, and information presentation ous studies identify a variety of factors that are likely to mode. In contrast, context factors describe the aspects of the influence choice overload—including attribute alignability, decision associated with the particular values of the choice attribute complementarity, ideal point availability, option options, including the similarity and the overall attractiveness of attractiveness, consumer expertise, variety seeking, time the alternatives.
In this research we refer to the task factors and pressure, product type, and need for cognition—convergence their impact on choice overload as decision task difficulty and to of these findings is difficult to achieve because there is little the context factors as choice set complexity.
In Unlike extrinsic factors, which refer to the characteristics of the same vein, different studies use different dependent the decision problem and are similar across individuals, variables to measure choice overload, including satisfaction, intrinsic factors are particular to the decision maker.
Two confidence, the likelihood of deferring choice, and the specific factors have been discussed in prior research examin- likelihood of switching to an alternative option.
Therefore, in ing the impact of assortment size on choice overload: order to make meaningful cross-study comparisons, one must preference uncertainty and decision goals. Here, preference generalize the study-specific moderators and measures into uncertainty refers to the degree to which individuals have theoretically meaningful constructs and examine whether and articulated preferences with respect to the decision at hand and how these constructs influence choice overload.
The decision goal, on the other hand, reflects the one of these constructs. Our theorizing is summarized in Fig. The four factors On a more general level, we view the impact of assortment size on discussed above—decision task difficulty, choice set com- consumer decision processes as a function of two types of factors: plexity, preference uncertainty, and decision goal—comprise 1 extrinsic factors that define the decision problem and are the key moderators that could potentially influence the impact Antecedents of choice overload Consequences of choice overload Extrinsic objective factors Choice satisfaction Choice set Decision task Subjective Decision complexity difficulty state regret Decision confidence Number Choice of options overload Choice deferral Switching Preference Decision Behavioral likelihood uncertainty goal outcome Assortment choice Intrinsic subjective factors Option selection Fig.
Conceptual model of the impact of assortment size on choice overload. In this context, we expect higher levels of decision task difficulty, greater choice set complexity, higher preference uncertainty, and a more prominent, effort-minimizing goal to produce greater choice overload.
Wansink, Specifically, it has been argued that the more We discuss the impact of each of the four factors outlined in dimensions on which products are differentiated, the more Fig. We then proceed to test additional information to compare the options before ultimately the validity of the proposed model by examining its ability to making a choice.
Thus, choosing from a set of items described account for the findings reported by the existing empirical data. In prior research and, thus, are available for the purposes of addition to increasing the amount of information that needs to meta-analysis.
In the general discussion section, we address be evaluated, increasing the number of attributes describing the some of the additional measures that are likely to moderate the available options also increases the number of dimensions on impact of assortment on choice overload but have not yet which each of the available options is inferior to the other gained empirical support.
Prior research has further argued that the impact of Decision task difficulty assortment size on choice overload can also be influenced by the presentation format of the individual options. Thus, The difficulty of the decision task reflects the general ordering options in a given assortment has been found to structural characteristics of the decision problem without decrease search costs, thus decreasing the difficulty of choosing influencing the values of the particular choice options Payne et an item from larger assortments Diehl, ; Diehl, Kornish, al.
In the same vein, decision-task factors—including time constraints, decision research by Hoch et al. We discuss the effects of than random manner. Recent research has further shown that these three factors on choice overload in more detail below. This nonsystematic difficulty can have a significant impact on the way assortment processing of the available alternatives, in turn, has been shown to size influences choice overload.
It has further been shown that the attributes describing each option, and the complexity of the impact of the assortment size on decision regret is a function of the presentation format—will lead to greater choice overload.
Another decision task factor that could influence the impact The complexity of the choice set reflects the aspects of the of assortment size on choice overload is decision accountability decision task that influence the values of the particular choice e. Related options without necessarily influencing the structural aspects of research has shown that preference for larger assortments tends the decision problem at hand Payne et al.
It has further impact of assortment size on choice overload. We discuss the been shown that when making a choice from a given effects of these factors on choice overload in more detail below. In this context, it has been shown that consumers features tends to lower the attractiveness of all alternatives in that are more likely to make a purchase from an assortment when it assortment.
Similarly, comprising complementary rather than noncomplementary op- adding an inferior option that enhances the dominance of one of tions. Furthermore, increasing assortment size by adding noncom- the existing options has been shown to increase the likelihood that plementary options tends to increase purchase likelihood from the a choice will be made from an assortment Dhar, , whereas assortment, whereas increasing assortment size by adding adding equally attractive options has been reported to have the complementary options tends to decrease purchase likelihood opposite effect, increasing the likelihood that choice will be from the assortment.
Furthermore, adding an inferior option has been shown to have a significant impact on whether and how assortment size increase the share of the dominant option, a finding commonly influences choice overload. Specifically, we expect that higher referred to as the attraction effect Huber et al. Thus, the finding that presence of a dominant option, as well as the overall consumers are more likely to make a purchase from an assortment attractiveness, alignability, and complementarity of the choice containing a dominant option is consistent with the notion that the options—will lead to greater choice overload.
Preference uncertainty The impact of assortment size on choice overload is also influenced by the attractiveness of the choice options. Some Preference uncertainty refers to the degree to which assortments comprise options that are of higher quality and, hence, individuals have articulated preferences with respect to the are likely to be perceived as more attractive, whereas other decision at hand, meaning that they understand the benefits of assortments comprise options that are of lower quality and are the choice options and can prioritize these benefits when likely to be perceived as relatively less attractive.
In this context, trading off the pros and cons of the choice options Chernev, prior research has argued that option attractiveness influences the b. This factor has been operationalized in prior research in way consumers choose among assortments, such that smaller two ways: in terms of the level of product-specific expertise and assortments are preferred to larger ones when these assortments in terms of the availability of an articulated ideal point. Thus, consumers are more likely to choice overload is a function of consumers' expertise and, in prefer smaller assortments when these assortments are curated to particular, their knowledge about the attributes and attribute include the most attractive options from larger assortments.
In this context, it has Prior research has further shown that the impact of assortment been shown that for consumers who are unfamiliar with the size on choice overload is a function of the alignability of the product category, choices from larger assortments are more likely attributes describing the options in the assortment. Here alignability to lead to choice deferral and weaker preferences for the selected describes the relationships among the attribute levels of the options alternative than choices from smaller assortments.
In contrast, for in a given assortment. Nonalignable attributes describe a scenario expert consumers, the impact of assortment size is reversed, in which a given feature is present in one of the options and absent leading to greater likelihood of choice deferral and weaker in the others, whereas alignable attributes describe a scenario in preferences for the chosen alternative in the context of smaller which objects have different but nonzero levels of a given rather than larger assortments Chernev, b; Mogilner et al.
In this context, it has been ; Morrin, Broniarczyk, and Inman, Hoch, Because the articulation of attribute trade-offs is A related argument has been advanced by Chernev , who essential for choice, the availability of an ideal attribute shows that the impact of assortment size on choice overload is also combination effectively increases the compatibility of consum- a function of feature complementarity, defined as the extent to er preference structures with the decision task, thus reducing which features complement one another with respect to their ability the structural complexity of the decision.
Therefore, prefer- to fulfill a particular consumer need. Indeed, because the search decisions, the differential impact of ideal point articulation is itself is utility enhancing for these consumers, there are fewer likely to be more pronounced for larger than for smaller if any negative consequences associated with larger assort- assortments Chernev, b.
Accordingly, consumers with an ments and, hence, less likelihood of choice overload. Because choices Building on the above research, we expect that individuals' among assortments do not necessarily involve evaluating the preference uncertainty can influence the impact of assortment size individual options in these assortments and trading off their pros on choice overload.
Specifically, we predict that a greater degree and cons, larger assortments are not necessarily associated with of choice overload will result from higher levels of preference greater cognitive effort and hence choice overload. Therefore, one uncertainty, defined in terms of the level of product-specific can argue that the impact of assortment size on choice overload is expertise and the availability of an articulated ideal point.
In this context, focusing consumer attention on choosing an The decision goal reflects the degree to which individuals aim assortment tends to enhance the benefits of variety while to minimize the cognitive effort involved in making a choice de-emphasizing the cognitive costs associated with making a among the options contained in the available assortments. The choice, thus strengthening the preference for larger assortments. In importance of the decision goal as a factor contributing to choice contrast, focusing individuals' attention on choosing a specific item overload is underscored by the fact that overload is, at least in from a given assortment tends to make the difficulty of choosing part, driven by consumers' inability to make a tradeoff among the from larger assortments more prominent, consequently increasing available options—an effect that is more pronounced for choices the preference for smaller assortments Chernev, ; see also from larger than from smaller assortments Chernev, b.
Whereas most assortment research has focused on scenarios in Therefore, varying the decision focus can systematically vary the which consumers' goals involve making a choice from the choice overload experienced by consumers, such that larger available assortments, this is not always the case, and on many assortments are more likely to lead to choice overload when the occasions consumer decisions do not involve such choices. In this goal involves choosing an option from an assortment rather than research, we identify three factors that could lead to scenarios in choosing among assortments.
Specifically, the construal-level construal high vs. In this context, one can argue decision goals. Specifically, we expect that choice overload is that decisions associated with a browsing goal are less likely to likely to be more pronounced in cases when consumers aim to lead to cognitive overload compared with decisions that involve minimize the effort involved in making a choice from a given the goal of making a choice.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Gourville and D. Gourville , D. Soman Published Economics Marketing Science. Almost universally, research and practice suggest that a brand that increases its product assortment, or variety, should benefit through increased market share.
Anhand einer empirischen Studie, in deren Mittelpunkt ein Car-Konfigurator steht, kann gezeigt werden, wie die Anzahl von Produktvarianten das Entscheidungsverhalten der Individuen beeinflusst. Based on decision-theoretical considerations, it is possible to posit circumstances under which expanding the number of varieties will positively or negatively affect consumer behavior. In this connection, the attribute alignability approach plays a central role. What emerges as the decisive factor in this connection is whether the product attributes in question are alignable or non-alignable. For the practician in the field, this yields concrete indications for customer-oriented design of product lines consisting of a basic product and several varieties derived from it.
Overchoice or choice overload  is a cognitive impairment in which people have a difficult time making a decision when faced with many options. The term was first introduced by Alvin Toffler in his book, Future Shock. The phenomenon of overchoice occurs when many equivalent choices are available. Having too many approximately equally good options is mentally draining because each option must be weighed against alternatives to select the best one. The satisfaction of choices by number of options available can be described by an inverted "U" model. Initially more choices lead to more satisfaction, but as the number of choices increases it then peaks and people tend to feel more pressure, confusion, and potentially dissatisfaction with their choice. Although larger choice sets can be initially appealing, smaller choice sets lead to increased satisfaction and reduced regret.
Overchoice and Assortment Type: When and Why Variety Backfires. John T. Gourville. Harvard Business School, Morgan Hall, Soldiers Field Road, Boston.
Almost universally, research and practice suggest that a brand that increases its product assortment, or variety, should benefit through increased market share. In this paper, we show this is not always the case. In turn, we argue that an alignable assortment can efficiently meet the diverse tastes of consumers, thereby increasing brand share, but that a nonalignable assortment increases both the cognitive effort and the potential for regret faced by a consumer, thereby decreasing brand share. Across three studies, we provide evidence of overchoice and tie the effect to the effort and regret brought about by nonalignability. In the process, we demonstrate that simplification of information presentation, reversibility of choice, and a reduction in underlying nonalignability serve to reduce or eliminate this effect.
Authors: Villa Bedoya, David Felipe. Aspects of the theory of risk bearing. Helsinki: Academic Bookstores.
Information overload, choice deferral, and moderating role of need for cognition: Empirical evidence.
10 вечера, по местным понятиям еще день: порядочный испанец никогда не обедает до заката, а ленивое андалузское солнце редко покидает небо раньше десяти. Несмотря на то что вечер только начинался, было очень жарко, однако Беккер поймал себя на том, что идет через парк стремительным шагом. Голос Стратмора в телефонной трубке звучал еще настойчивее, чем утром.
Вы же сказали… - Мы к нему пальцем не притронулись, - успокоил ее Стратмор. - Он умер от разрыва сердца. Сегодня утром звонили из КОМИНТа.
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A lmost universally, research and practice suggest that a brand that increases its product assortment, or variety, should benet through increased market share.