File Name: present perfect active and passive exercises .zip
The Passive Voice Let s look at this sentence: I drank two cups of coffee. This is an active sentence and it has the subject first the person or thing that does the verb , followed by the verb, and finally the object the person or thing that the action happens to.
Voice: Voice is that form of the transitive verb that shows whether the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action or has the action done to it. Here, Mohan is the subject and he is the doer of the action, i.
Active and passive voice, worksheets, rules, examples PDF : You must have the knowledge of active and passive sentences What is a sentence? If you are a speaker of English then you may experience those situations too where you have to use both the form of tenses Complete English Tenses Chart in pdf. On the basic of form we have two types of voice, active voice and passive voice given below.
The passive voice in English is a grammatical " voice ". The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of a corresponding active sentence such as "Our troops defeated the enemy " appears as the subject of a sentence or clause in the passive voice " The enemy was defeated by our troops".
The subject of a sentence or clause featuring the passive voice typically denotes the recipient of the action the patient rather than the performer the agent. Verbs in the passive voice in English are formed using several parts periphrastically : the usual construction uses the auxiliary verbs to be or to get together with the past participle of the main verb.
For example, Caesar was stabbed by Brutus is in the passive voice. The subject, Caesar , indicates the person acted upon. The agent is expressed here with the phrase by Brutus , but this can be omitted. The equivalent sentence in the active voice is Brutus stabbed Caesar , in which the subject denotes the doer, or agent, Brutus. A sentence featuring the passive voice is sometimes called a passive sentence , and a verb phrase in passive voice is sometimes called a passive verb.
English allows a number of passive constructions which are not possible in many of the other languages with similar passive formation. These include promotion of an indirect object to subject as in Tom was given a bag and promotion of the complement of a preposition as in Sue was operated on , leaving a stranded preposition.
Use of the passive in English varies with writing style and field. It is generally much less used than the active voice but is more prevalent in scientific writing than in other prose.
Contemporary style guides discourage excessive use of the passive but appropriate use is generally accepted, for instance where the patient is the topic, the agent is unimportant and therefore omitted , or the agent is to be highlighted and therefore placed toward the end. The passive voice is a specific grammatical construction.
The essential components, in English, are a form of the auxiliary verb be or sometimes get  and the past participle of the main verb denoting the action. The agent the doer of the action may be specified using a prepositional phrase with the preposition by, but this is optional. A distinction is made between the above type of clause and a superficially similar construction where a word with the form of a past participle is used as a predicative adjective , and the verb be or similar is simply a copula linking the subject of the sentence to that adjective.
For example:. Though the passive can be used for the purpose of concealing the agent, this is not a valid way of identifying the passive, and many other grammatical constructions can be used to accomplish this. Not every expression that serves to take focus away from the performer of an action is an instance of passive voice.
For instance "There were mistakes. Occasionally, authors express recommendations about use of the passive unclearly or misapply the term "passive voice" to include sentences of this type. Two sentences later, Madoff said, "When I began the Ponzi scheme, I believed it would end shortly, and I would be able to extricate myself, and my clients, from the scheme. In most of the rest of the statement, one not only heard the aggrieved passive voice , but felt the hand of a lawyer: "To the best of my recollection, my fraud began in the early nineteen-nineties.
The intransitive verbs would end and began are in fact ergative verbs in the active voice. Although the speaker may be using words in a manner that diverts responsibility from him, this is not being accomplished by use of passive voice. The passive voice can be used without referring to the agent of an action; it may therefore be used when the agent is unknown or unimportant, or the speaker does not wish to mention the agent.
The last sentence illustrates a frequently criticized use of the passive, as the evasion of responsibility by failure to mention the agent which may even be the speaker themselves.
However the passive voice can also be used together with a mention of the agent, usually using a by -phrase. Here, in contrast to the examples above, passive constructions may in fact serve to place emphasis on the agent, since it is natural for information being emphasized to come at the end:. In more technical terms, such uses can be expected in sentences where the agent is the focus comment , rheme , while the patient the undergoer of the action is the topic or theme  see Topic—comment.
There is a tendency for sentences to be formulated so as to place the focus at the end, which can motivate the choice of active or passive voice:. Similarly, the passive may be used because the noun phrase denoting the agent is a long one containing many modifiers since it is convenient to place such phrases at the end of a clause:. In some situations, the passive may be used so that the most dramatic word or the punchline appears at the end of the sentence.
Many language critics and language-usage manuals discourage use of the passive voice. The active voice is usually more direct and vigorous than the passive.
This rule does not, of course, mean that the writer should entirely discard the passive voice, which is frequently convenient and sometimes necessary.
The need to make a particular word the subject of the sentence will often. The habitual use of the active voice, however, makes for forcible writing. This is true not only in narrative concerned principally with action, but in writing of any kind.
Many a tame sentence of description or exposition can be made lively and emphatic by substituting a transitive in the active voice for some such perfunctory expression as there is or could be heard. In , in A Dictionary of Modern English Usage , Henry Watson Fowler recommended against transforming active voice forms into passive voice forms, because doing so " In , in the essay Politics and the English Language , George Orwell recommended the active voice as an elementary principle of composition: "Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Active voice makes subjects do something to something ; passive voice permits subjects to have something done to them by someone or something. Some argue that active voice is more muscular, direct, and succinct, passive voice flabbier, more indirect, and wordier.
If you want your words to seem impersonal, indirect, and noncommittal, passive is the choice, but otherwise, active voice is almost invariably likely to prove more effective. Use of the passive is more prevalent in scientific writing,  but publishers of some scientific publications, such as Nature ,  Science  and the IEEE ,  explicitly encourage their authors to use active voice.
The principal criticism against the passive voice is its potential for evasion of responsibility. This is because a passive clause may be used to omit the agent even where it is important:. Krista Ratcliffe, a professor at Marquette University, notes the use of passives as an example of the role of grammar as " Jan Freeman, a columnist for The Boston Globe , said that the passive voice does have its uses, and that "all good writers use the passive voice.
Passive writing is not necessarily slack and indirect. Many famously vigorous passages use the passive voice, as in these examples with the passive verbs italicized:. While Strunk and White , in The Elements of Style , encourage use of the active voice, they also state that the passive is often useful and sometimes preferable, even necessary, the choice of active or passive depending, for instance, on the topic of the sentence.
Another advisor, Joseph M. Williams , who has written several books on style, states with greater clarity that the passive is often the better choice. Bryan A. Garner , in Garner's Modern English Usage , stresses the advantages of the active voice, but gives the following examples of where the passive is preferred: . Merriam—Webster's Dictionary of English Usage recommends the passive voice when identifying the object receiver of the action is more important than the subject agent , and when the agent is unknown, unimportant, or not worth mentioning:.
The linguist Geoffrey Pullum writes that "The passive is not an undesirable feature limited to bad writing, it's a useful construction often needed for clear expression, and every good writer uses it. Despite criticism that the passive can be used to hide responsibility by omitting the agent, the passive can also be used to emphasize the agent. Writers have preferred placing the agent at the end of a clause or sentence to give it greater emphasis, as in the examples given in the previous section:.
Agentless passives were once common in scientific writing , where the agent may be irrelevant, although at least one publisher considers this a "fading practice": . The passive voice is used more frequently in scientific writing than in other prose, where it is relatively rare. A statistical study of a variety of periodicals found a maximum incidence of 13 percent passive constructions. Despite Orwell's advice to avoid the passive, his Politics and the English Language employs passive voice for about 20 percent of its constructions.
In the most commonly considered type of passive clause, a form of the verb be or sometimes get is used as an auxiliary together with the past participle of a transitive verb ; that verb is missing its direct object , and the patient of the action that which would be denoted by the direct object of the verb in an active clause is denoted instead by the subject of the clause.
For example, the active clause:. If we recast the verb in the passive voice was thrown , then the ball becomes the subject it is "promoted" to the subject position and John disappears:. The original subject the agent can optionally be re-inserted using the preposition by. The above example uses the verb be in the past tense form was to make the passive. It is often possible to use the verb get as an alternative possibly with slightly different meaning ; for example, the active sentence "The ball hit Bob" may be recast in either of the following forms:.
The auxiliary verb of the passive voice be or get may appear in any combination of tense, aspect and mood , and can also appear in non-finite form infinitive, participle or gerund. See the article on English verb forms for more information.
Notice that this includes use of the verb be in progressive aspect , which does not normally occur when be is used as a simple copula. Some examples:. Unlike some other languages, English also allows passive clauses in which an indirect object , rather than a direct object, is promoted to the subject.
In the active form, gave is the verb; John is its subject, Mary its indirect object, and a book its direct object. In the passive forms, the indirect object has been promoted and the direct object has been left in place. In this respect, English resembles secundative languages. It is normally only the first-appearing object that can be promoted; promotion of the indirect object takes place from a construction in which it precedes the direct object i.
It is also possible, in some cases, to promote the object of a preposition. This may be called the prepositional passive , or sometimes the pseudopassive  although the latter term can also have other meanings, such as being equivalent to the impersonal passive voice ,  particularly in descriptions of other languages.
In the passive form here, the preposition is " stranded "; that is, it is not followed by an object. The prepositional passive is common, especially in informal English.
However some potential uses are much less acceptable than others; compare the following examples: . The second sentence appears much less acceptable because sleeping above a bunk does not change its state; the verb phrase been slept above does not express a "relevantly important property" of the bunk. It is not usually possible to promote a prepositional object if the verb also has a direct object; any passive rendering of the sentence must instead promote the direct object.
A type of clause that is similar or identical in form to the passive clauses described above has the past participle used to denote not an action, but a state being the result of an action. For example, the sentence The window was broken may have two different meanings and might be ambiguous:. The first sentence is an example of the canonical English passive as described above. However the second case is distinct; such sentences are not passive voice, because the participle is being used adjectivally;  Such constructs are sometimes called "false passives" or stative passives rarely called statal , static , or resultative passives , since they represent a state or result.
By contrast the canonical passives, representing an action or event, may then be called dynamic or eventive passives. The ambiguity in such sentences arises because the verb be is used in English both as the passive auxiliary and as the ordinary copular verb for linking to predicate adjectives.
When get is used to form the passive, there is no ambiguity: The window got broken cannot have a stative meaning. If a distinct adjective exists for the purpose of expressing the state, then the past participle is less likely to be used for that purpose; this is the case with the verb open and the adjective open , so the sentence The door was opened but not the package was unopened more likely refers to the action than to the state since one can simply say The door was open in the stative case.
Past participles of transitive verbs can also be used as adjectives as in a broken doll , and the participles used in the above-mentioned "stative" constructions are often considered to be adjectival in predicative use. Such constructions may then also be called adjectival passives although they are not normally considered true passives.
English Version. Top 19 English Grammar eBooks. Parts of Speech [Full Discussion]. Using Articles - A, An, The. Gerund, Participle, Infinitive. Rules of Changing Voice. Sentence: Definition, Types, Examples, Structures.
The passive voice in English is a grammatical " voice ". The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of a corresponding active sentence such as "Our troops defeated the enemy " appears as the subject of a sentence or clause in the passive voice " The enemy was defeated by our troops". The subject of a sentence or clause featuring the passive voice typically denotes the recipient of the action the patient rather than the performer the agent. Verbs in the passive voice in English are formed using several parts periphrastically : the usual construction uses the auxiliary verbs to be or to get together with the past participle of the main verb.
We were driven home by Dad. Meal is cooked by someone every day.. Considering this we are giving active and passive voice rules along with active and passive voice exercises pdf so that voice … Present continuous passive.
In Uncategorized Posted gennaio 08, Present perfect with just, already, yet, ever and never 1 Choose the correct word. When the boys arrived at the cinema, the film had already started , 3. Uses of wish in English - expressing wishes.
Changing an assertive sentence into the passive. Active: I have written a story. Passive: A story has been written by me. Active: They have built a house.
Jump to navigation. As you watch the video, look at the examples of passive forms. Then read the conversation below to learn more. Finally, do the grammar exercises to check you understand, and can use, passive forms correctly. We use the passive, rather than the active, to show that we are more interested in a certain part of the sentence. The active form would be 'The cleaners are cleaning my room'.
Present perfect passive - exercises. Active and passive voice Online + PDF exercises with answers and grammar rules. PDF worksheets to download.
Его безумная поездка вот-вот закончится. Он посмотрел на ее пальцы, но не увидел никакого кольца и перевел взгляд на сумку. Вот где кольцо! - подумал. - В сумке. - и улыбнулся, едва сохраняя спокойствие. - Ты сочтешь это сумасшествием, - сказал Беккер, - но мне кажется, что у тебя есть кое-что, что мне очень .
Это было настоящее чудо. Священник готовился начать молитву. Беккер осмотрел свой бок. На рубашке расплывалось красное пятно, хотя кровотечение вроде бы прекратилось. Рана была небольшой, скорее похожей на глубокую царапину. Он заправил рубашку в брюки и оглянулся.
Хочешь от меня избавиться? - надулся Хейл. - Если честно - да, - Не надо так, Сью, Ты меня оскорбляешь. Глаза Сьюзан сузились.
- Она бросила пачку компьютерных распечаток ему на стол. - Я что, бухгалтер. - Нет, милый, ты директорский автопилот.
Ну, мне было все равно. Я просто хотела от него избавиться. - Когда вы отдали ей кольцо.
Джабба удивленно заморгал. - Соши. Соши Кута, тонкая как проволока, весила не больше сорока килограммов. Она была его помощницей, прекрасным техником лаборатории систем безопасности, выпускницей Массачусетс кого технологического института. Она часто работала с ним допоздна и, единственная из всех сотрудников, нисколько его не боялась.
И что. Хейл понимал: то, что он сейчас скажет, либо принесет ему свободу, либо станет его смертным приговором.