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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Markley , F.

Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control

Wertz Microcosm, Inc. Pocha Letchworth, Herts. Rex W. John L. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed.

Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.

Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publishers location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer.

Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made.

The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Springer grants the United States government royalty-free permission to reproduce all or part of this work and to authorize others to do so for United States government purposes. To Gail, Michelle, and Isaac. To Pam and Lucas, and in memory of Lucas G. This text provides the fundamental concepts and mathematical basis for spacecraft attitude determination and control.

It is intended to serve as both a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students and a reference guide for practicing professionals. A primary motivation of this text is to develop the theory of attitude determination from first principles to practical algorithms, because very few of the existing texts on spacecraft control treat spacecraft attitude determination in depth. We emphasize specific applications; so the reader can understand how the derived theory is applied to actual orbiting spacecraft.

We also highlight some simplified analytical expressions that can serve as first cut analyses for more detailed studies and are especially important in the initial design phase of a spacecraft attitude determination and control system.

For example, Sect. Analyses of this type can also help to determine whether anomalous behavior encountered by an orbiting spacecraft is due to a hardware problem, a control system design error, or a programming error, and to find a path to resolving the anomaly. In writing this book the authors hope to make a significant contribution toward expediting the process most newcomers must go through in assimilating and applying attitude determination and control theory.

Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the concepts presented in the text. It serves to motivate the reader by giving a historical review of the subject matter, including discussions of several actual missions that cover a broad spectrum of attitude determination and control designs.

It also provides examples of how an inadequate theoretical analysis can cause a failure to meet mission objectives or, even worse, loss of a mission. Some examples of creative strategies to recover from potential mission failures are also presented.

Chapter 2 begins with a review of linear algebra and moves on to the basic ideas of spacecraft attitude studies: reference frames, transformations between reference frames, and alternative representations of these transformations.

Chapter 3 provides detailed derivations of attitude kinematics and dynamics, including a treatment of the torques acting on spacecraft. Chapter 4 provides the mathematical models behind the most common types of spacecraft vii. Actual hardware specifications of these sensors and actuators are not given because the rapid development of this technology would quickly render them obsolete.

Chapter 5 is a detailed treatment of attitude determination methods that do not depend on a retained memory of past observations. The most famous method in this category, the solution of Wahbas problem, is introduced, accompanied by several algorithms for solving it and a rigorous statistical analysis of its estimation errors.

Chapter 6 covers attitude determination methods that mitigate the effects of sensor errors by incorporating dynamic models into a filtering process to retain a memory of past observations. Here the focus is on Kalman filtering, including both calibration and mission mode filters. Chapter 7 shows the fundamentals of attitude control, including some recent theoretical advancements on the effects of noise on the control system design. Chapter 8 gives a list of quaternion identities, many of which have not appeared in open literature.

Chapter 9 presents the explicit equations for the attitude matrices and kinematic equations for all 12 Euler angle representations of the attitude.

Chapter 11 provides a summary of environment models, which is crucial to understanding their effect on spacecraft translational and rotational motion. Chapter 12 reviews the theoretical basis of general control and estimation in enough detail to refresh the readers memory of the concepts that underlie the applications in the text.

This book is the product of many years of experience possessed by the authors working on actual spacecraft attitude determination and control designs for numerous missions. Several actual mission examples are presented throughout the text to help the reader bridge the gap between theory and practice. Most of the mission examples in this text provide representative examples of typical mission mode designs.

However, the authors wish to also show how the theory presented in the text can be applied to nonstandard mission modes derived from unique requirements. Section 7. Section 6. All of the examples are based on a ground up approach, i. As stated previously, this text can be used for an undergraduate course in spacecraft dynamics and controls. The second author has taught a senior level course in this area for many years, which is split into two parts: 1 orbital dynamics and 2 attitude kinematics and dynamics.

Chapter 10 provides the material that is used for the orbital dynamics portion of the course. Chapters 2 and 3 provide the necessary material for the attitude kinematics and dynamics portion of the course. Material for a graduate level course can include a brief review of orbital dynamics from Chapter 10 followed by the environmental models shown in Chapter Chapters 5 and 6 can provide the bulk of a graduate course covering attitude determination and estimation.

Chapter 7 can also be used in the graduate course to provide an introduction to attitude control. The authors believe that the entire book can serve as a reference or refresher for practitioners, which provides the primary motivation for including Chap. To encourage student learning we have incorporated both analytical and computer-based problems at the end of each chapter. This promotes working problems from first principles.

General computer software and coded scripts have deliberately not been included with this text. Instead, a website with computer programs for all the examples shown in the text can be accessed by the reader see Appendix. Although computer routines can provide some insights into the subject, we feel that they may hinder rigorous theoretical studies that are required to properly comprehend the material. Therefore, we strongly encourage students to program their own computer routines, using the codes provided from the website for verification purposes only.

We are indebted to numerous colleagues and students for contributions to various aspects of this work. In particular, we wish to express our gratitude to Mark Psiaki and especially to John Junkins for encouraging us to write this book. Many students have provided excellent insights and recommendations to enhance the pedagogical value, as well as developing new problems that are used as exercises. Although there are far too many students to name individually here, our sincere appreciation goes out to them.

We do wish to acknowledge the significant contributions on the subject matter to the following individuals: Christopher Nebelecky for providing the section on the disturbing forces in Sect. Our heartfelt thanks to the following individuals for proofreading the text: Michael Andrle, J. We also wish to thank the following individuals for their many discussions and insights throughout the development of this book: K.

Jeremy Kasdin, Ken Lebsock, E. Also, many thanks are due to several people at Springer, including our editor Maury Solomon, our assistant editor Nora Rawn, and Harry J. Finally, our deepest and most sincere appreciation must be expressed to our families for their patience and. Any corrections are welcome via email to Landis. Markley nasa. Matrices, Vectors, Frames, Transforms. Attitude Kinematics and Dynamics. Kinematics of Attitude Parameterizations. Sensors and Actuators. Static Attitude Determination Methods.

Quaternion Solutions of Wahbas Problem. Filtering for Attitude Estimation and Calibration. Attitude Control. Attitude Control: Tracking Case. Quaternion Identities. Euler Angles. Orbital Dynamics. Environment Models. Review of Control and Estimation Theory. Appendix: Computer Software. Spacecraft attitude determination and control covers the entire range of techniques for determining the orientation of a spacecraft and then controlling it so that the spacecraft points in some desired direction.

The attitude estimation and attitude control problems are coupled, but they can be considered separately to some extent. The separation theorem for linear systems shown in Sect. Specifically, the feedback gains in the control system can be chosen assuming that the systems state is perfectly known. No general separation theorem exists for nonlinear systems, including spacecraft attitude control systems, but the pointing requirements for most space missions have been satisfied by designing the attitude determination and control systems separately.

It is sometimes useful to distinguish between attitude determination and attitude estimation, although this distinction is often blurred. Attitude determination in this strict sense refers to memoryless approaches that determine the attitude point-bypoint in time, quite often without taking the statistical properties of the attitude measurements into account.

Attitude estimation, on the other hand, refers to approaches with memory, i. Malcolm Shuster made the incisive observation that attitude estimation is the youngest of the four quadrants of astronautics shown in Table 1. The table shows the attitude estimation quadrant to be actually empty before the launch of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, in As Shuster pointed out,There were, apparently no eighteenth- or nineteenthcentury contributors to attitude estimation of even modest calibre, because there was simply no great problem in Attitude Estimation waiting to be solved.

The field of attitude estimation actually remained in a very underdeveloped state even into the.

Fundamentals-of-Spacecraft-Attitude-Determination-and-Control

F] Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control Read Online Details Details Product: This book explores topics that are central to the field of spacecraft attitude determination and control. The authors provide rigorous theoretical derivations of significant algorithms accompanied by a generous amount of qualitative discussions of the subject matter. The book documents the development of the important concepts and methods in a manner accessible to practicing engineers, graduate-level engineering students and applied mathematicians. It includes detailed examples from actual mission designs to help ease the transition from theory to practice and also provides prototype algorithms that are readily available on the author's website. Subject matter includes both theoretical derivations and practical implementation of spacecraft attitude determination and control systems. It provides detailed derivations for attitude kinematics and dynamics and provides detailed description of the most widely used attitude parameterization, the quaternion. This title also provides a thorough treatise of attitude dynamics including Jacobian elliptical functions.

Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control

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This book explores topics that are central to the field of spacecraft attitude determination and control. The authors provide rigorous theoretical derivations of significant algorithms accompanied by a generous amount of qualitative discussions of the subject matter. The book documents the development of the important concepts and methods in a manner accessible to practicing engineers, graduate-level engineering students and applied mathematicians. Subject matter includes both theoretical derivations and practical implementation of spacecraft attitude determination and control systems.

Landis Markley John L. Wertz Microcosm, Inc. Pocha Letchworth, Herts.

PDF Download Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control (Space Technology

Attitude control is the process of controlling the orientation of an aerospace vehicle with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity such as the celestial sphere , certain fields, and nearby objects, etc. Controlling vehicle attitude requires sensors to measure vehicle orientation, actuators to apply the torques needed to orient the vehicle to a desired attitude, and algorithms to command the actuators based on 1 sensor measurements of the current attitude and 2 specification of a desired attitude. The integrated field that studies the combination of sensors, actuators and algorithms is called guidance, navigation and control GNC. An aircraft 's attitude is stabilized in three directions: yaw , nose left or right about an axis running up and down; pitch , nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; and roll , rotation about an axis running from nose to tail. Elevators moving flaps on the horizontal tail produce pitch, a rudder on the vertical tail produces yaw, and ailerons flaps on the wings that move in opposing directions produce roll. A spacecraft's attitude must typically be stabilized and controlled for a variety of reasons. It is often needed so that the spacecraft high-gain antenna may be accurately pointed to Earth for communications, so that onboard experiments may accomplish precise pointing for accurate collection and subsequent interpretation of data, so that the heating and cooling effects of sunlight and shadow may be used intelligently for thermal control, and also for guidance: short propulsive maneuvers must be executed in the right direction.

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Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control provides the fundamental concepts and mathematical basis for spacecraft attitude determination and control. It is intended to serve as both a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students and as a reference guide for practicing professionals. A primary motivation of this text is to develop the theory of attitude determination from first principles to practical algorithms, because very few of the existing texts on spacecraft control treat spacecraft attitude determination in depth. We emphasize specific applications so the reader can understand how the derived theory is applied to actual orbiting spacecraft. We also highlight some simplified analytical expressions that can serve as first cut analyses for more detailed studies and are especially important in the initial design phase of a spacecraft attitude determination and control system. It has been our experience that to thoroughly understand the intricacies of a subject as diverse as spacecraft attitude determination and control theory, one must learn from basic fundamentals first. Although computer routines can provide some insights to the subject, we feel that they may hinder rigorous theoretical studies that are required to properly comprehend the material.

Table of Contents

This book explores topics that are central to the field of spacecraft attitude determination and control. The authors provide rigorous theoretical derivations of significant algorithms accompanied by a generous amount of qualitative discussions of the subject matter. The book documents the development of the important concepts and methods in a manner accessible to practicing engineers, graduate-level engineering students and applied mathematicians. Subject matter includes both theoretical derivations and practical implementation of spacecraft attitude determination and control systems. It provides detailed derivations for attitude kinematics and dynamics, and provides detailed description of the most widely used attitude parameterization, the quaternion. It is the first known book to provide detailed derivations and explanations of state attitude determination, and gives readers real-world examples from actual working spacecraft missions. The subject matter is chosen to fill the void of existing textbooks and treatises, especially in state and dynamics attitude determination.

Epub Download Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control Full Online

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Markley , F.

Spacecraft pointing accuracies with sub-arcsec to milli-arcsec levels are becoming a norm for the future space missions, which is mainly achieved by employing mission-specific fine guidance sensor FGS. Furthermore, performance comparison between the rate-integrating and rate-gyroscope-based multiplicative extended Kalman filter for this mission is demonstrated. Finally, performance comparison of three attitude controllers establishes their feasibility for this mission. Google Scholar.

This book explores topics that are central to the field of spacecraft attitude determination and control. The authors provide rigorous theoretical derivations of significant algorithms accompanied by a generous amount of qualitative discussions of the subject matter. The book documents the development of the important concepts and methods in a manner accessible to practicing engineers, graduate-level engineering students and applied mathematicians.

Epub Download Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control Full Online

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