File Name: highway cross section elements and geometric design of highways .zip
The primary consideration in the design of geometric cross sections for highways, run-ways, and taxiways is drainage. Details vary depending on the type of facility Highway cross sections consist of traveled way, shoulders or parking lanes , and drainage channels. Shoulders are intended primarily as a safety feature. They provide for accommodation of stopped vehicles, emergency use, and lateral support of the pavement. Shoulders may be either paved or unpaved. Drainage channels may consist of ditches usually grassed swales or of paved shoulders with berms or curbs and gutters. Cross section of various roads are given bellow.
Geometric Design of Highways Cross Sectional Elements Introduction The geometric design of highways deals with the dimensions and layout of visible features of the highway. The emphasis of the geometric design is to address the requirement of the driver and the vehicle such as safety, comfort, efficiency, etc. The features normally considered are the cross section elements, sight distance consideration, horizontal curvature, gradients, and intersection. The design of these features is to a great extend influenced by driver behavior and psychology, vehicle characteristics, traffic characteristics such as speed and volume. Proper geometric design will help in the reduction of accidents and their severity.
The geometric design of roads is the branch of highway engineering concerned with the positioning of the physical elements of the roadway according to standards and constraints. The basic objectives in geometric design are to optimize efficiency and safety while minimizing cost and environmental damage. Geometric design also affects an emerging fifth objective called "livability," which is defined as designing roads to foster broader community goals, including providing access to employment, schools, businesses and residences, accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking, bicycling, transit, and automobiles, and minimizing fuel use, emissions and environmental damage. Geometric roadway design can be broken into three main parts: alignment, profile, and cross-section. Combined, they provide a three-dimensional layout for a roadway. The alignment is the route of the road, defined as a series of horizontal tangents and curves.
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