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Industry Advice Leadership. Everyone has the potential to unleash and nurture these skills. Learn more about five common leadership styles and how you can make them your own. Learn how leadership is evolving and the skills required to lead in a digital, global world. These highly influential leaders serve as role models to inspire others.
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To download a. As with most major academic undertakings, there is little agreement in what makes a leader. Since the earliest days of the study of business, there have been discussions of leadership. However, leadership is hardly a discussion that was originated with the advent of the academic study of businesses. Wrench, J. How strategic workplace communication can save your organization. Wrench Ed. External workplace communication pp.
Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. Leadership: A communication perspective 5 th ed. Long Grove, IL: Waveland, pg. The rest of this section is going to explore these different approaches to leadership. The first major approach to leadership is commonly referred to as the trait approach Approach to leadership studies that searches for a series of physical, mental, or personality traits that effective leaders possess that neither non-leaders nor ineffective leaders possess.
The first major study to synthesize the trait literature was conducted by Ralph Stogdill in Stogdill, R. Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 25 , In , Stogdill reanalyzed the literature and found six basic categories of characteristics that were associated with leadership: physical, social background, intelligence and ability, personality, task-related, and social.
Bass, B. Table 7. From Table 7. Notice, that there is some overlap, but each list is clearly unique. In fact, one of the fundamental problems with the trait approach to leadership is that research has provided a never-ending list of personality traits that are associated with leadership, so no clear or replicable list of traits exists.
Even communication researchers have examined the possible relationship between leadership and various communication traits. Communication traits and leadership emergence: Examining the impact of argumentativeness, communication apprehension, and verbal aggressiveness in work groups. Communication Quarterly, 70 , The communication apprehensive perspective.
McCroskey Eds. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage; pg. A conceptualization and measure of argumentativeness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46 , ; pg. Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure. Communication Monographs, 53 , In other research, leader verbal aggression was found to negatively impact employee level of satisfaction and organizational commitment while argumentativeness positively related to employee level of satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Journal of Business Psychology, 25 , The original notion that leaders were created through a magic checklist of personality traits has fallen out of favor in the leadership community. Dinh, J. Implications of dispositional and process views of traits for individual difference research in leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 23 4 , Born entrepreneurs, born leaders: How your genes affect your work life.
Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62 1 , These new theories of leadership are commonly referred to as the situational approaches Approach to leadership that studies leadership as a phenoemnon of differing organizational contexts and situations that lead or enable different types of leadership behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Fiedler believed that that leaders do not change their leadership styles, but rather when situations change, leaders must adapt their leadership strategies. Task-oriented leaders Leaders who are focused on the task and accomplishing organizational goals.
Relationship-oriented leaders Leaders who are focused on creating positive interactions with followers and establishing positive relationships based on mutual trust, respect, and confidence. To determine situational favorableness, leaders must examine three distinct aspects of their leadership style: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.
The first factor of situation favorableness leaders must attend to involves the nature of their relationship with their followers. Leaders who have positive relationships with their followers will have high levels of mutual trust, respect, and confidence; whereas leaders with negative relationships with their followers will have lower degrees of mutual trust, respect, and confidence.
Next, leaders must determine if the task at hand is one that is highly structured or one that that is unstructured. Highly structured tasks are ones that tend to be repetitive and unambiguous, so they are more easily understood by followers, which leads to a more favorable situation for the leader.
If tasks are unstructured, then the leader will have followers who are less likely to understand the task, which will make for a less favorable leadership situation. Lastly, leaders need to know whether they are in a position of strong or weak power. Leaders who do not have the ability to exert power over followers are in a much less favorable leadership situation. When one combines the three factors leader-follower relations, task structure, and position power , the basic contingency model proposed by Fiedler emerges.
Figure 7. In this model, you can see that the combination of the three factors create a continuum of most favorable to least favorableness for the leader. Notice that there are eight basic levels ranging from the left side of the model, which is more favorable, to the right side of the model, which is least favorable.
In this case, the leader can either attempt to alter her or his leadership style, which is not likely to lead to a positive outcome, or the leader can attempt to change the situation to match her or his LPC style, which will be more likely to lead to a positive outcome.
Hersey, P. Life cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal, 23 5 , 26— In the basic model seen in Figure 7. Based on these two dimensions, Hersey and Blanchard propose four basic types of leadership leaders can employ with various followers depending on the situational needs of the followers: directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating.
Management of organizational behavior: Leading human resources 8th ed. A directing leader is needed by followers who do lack both the skill and the motivation to perform a task. Hersey and Blanchard recommend against supportive behavior at this point because the supporting behavior may be perceived as a reward by the follower. Instead, these followers need a lot of task-directed communication and oversight.
The coaching leader is necessary when followers have a high need for direction and a high need of support. Next, you have followers who still require low levels of direction from leaders but who need more support from their leaders. Hersey and Blanchard see these followers as individuals who more often than not have requisite skills but still need their leader for motivation. In this case, a leader can easily delegate tasks to this individual with the expectations that the follower will accomplish the tasks.
However, leaders should not completely avoid supportive behavior because if a follower feels that he or she is being completely ignored, the relationship between the leader and follower could sour.
The first major functional theorist was an organizational researcher by the name of Chester Barnard who published a ground-breaking book in titled The Functions of the Executive. Barnard, C. The functions of the executive. In this book, Barnard argues that executives have three basic functions. In essence, leaders should be able to form a clear vision for the organization and then set about creating the tasks necessary to help the organization accomplish that vision.
According to Barnard, the first function of an executive should be to establish and maintain a system of communication. As such, Barnard came up with seven specific rules to help executives create a system of communication within their organizations:.
From this perspective, leaders have a fundamental task in creating and controlling both the formal and informal communication systems within the organization. In fact, Chester Barnard was one of the first researchers to really extol the importance of understanding both the formal and informal communication within an organization.
Kenneth Benne and Paul Sheats did not exactly set out to create a tool for analyzing and understanding the functional aspects of leadership. Benne, K. Functional roles of group members. Benne and Sheats categorized the more prosocial roles as belonging to one of two groups: task and group building and maintenance roles.
Group building and maintenance roles Roles taken on by a group or team member to help foster a sense of community and purpose within the group itself. Reprinted from the Journal of Social Issues, 4 , ; pg.
For details on it including licensing , click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author but see below , don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. This content was accessible as of December 29, , and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here.
Formalism is a school of literary criticism and literary theory having mainly to do with structural purposes of a particular text. It is the study of a text without taking into account any outside influence. Formalism rejects or sometimes simply "brackets" i. In literary theory , formalism refers to critical approaches that analyze, interpret, or evaluate the inherent features of a text. These features include not only grammar and syntax but also literary devices such as meter and tropes.
Download PDF This book represents an attempt to enhance modular study of leadership by introducing models, theories and themes, highlighting critical assumptions and engaging in key debates. It is written by Doris Schedlitzki and Gareth Edwards, two dedicated leadership scholars, well known to Leadership and the Humanities readers from their research and contribution to the field of leadership. As explained in the introduction, the book is grounded in the authors' interest in provoking critical thinking in the study of leadership. Their aim is not only to present leadership, but also to recognise different theoretical, methodological and geographical positions. In doing so, the readers are introduced to a clear message: to study leadership critically and apply their thinking in practice.
two recently published textbooks: Leadership by Iszatt-White & Saunders (), and Studying Leadership: Traditional and Critical Approaches by Schedlitzki.
Effective leaders take a personal interest in the long-term development of their employees, and they use tact and other social skills to encourage employees to achieve their best. The would-be analyst of leadership usually studies popularity, power, showmanship, or wisdom in long-range planning. But none of these qualities is the essence of leadership. To be successful, leaders must learn two basic lessons: People are complex, and people are different. Human beings respond not only to the traditional carrot and stick but also to ambition, patriotism, love of the good and the beautiful, boredom, self-doubt, and many other desires and emotions.
It goes beyond the standard topics covered in existing texts to introduce some exciting new themes such as authenticity, toxicity, followership, gender, diversity, arts, aesthetics, language, identity, ethics and sustainability.
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Inquiry-Based Approach 4. Each differs with respect to when issues related to input, process, and outcomes, are addressed. Collaborative Approach 3. Furthermore, some background variables were found to affect the classroom management approaches of teachers. In addition, information on student feelings about large versus small classes and student opinions of the teaching methods was gathered. Teaching Reading 5. The result is generally referred to as a teaching method or approach, by which we referTeaching approaches and strategies that work He rautaki whakaako e whai hua ana.
Javier Marcos, Cranfield University The chapters set out some of the key issues in leadership studies at the current time. They successfully combine a review of the theoretical position in leadership and give a critical assessment of these theories in the current leadership climate. It has a clearly thought out logical flow with enough material to inform and challenge both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Lise Georgeson, Academic Director, St Marys University College A distinctive book written in an eloquent style and manner that captures the readers imagination of the past, present and future perception of leadership.
Leadership In Organizations Pdf System leadership can build capacity in education; share expertise, facilities and resources; encourage innovation and creativity; improve. Relationship between Leadership Styles and Organizational Performance There is a considerable impact of the leadership styles on organizational performance. People participate in the organizations when they are going to gain something out of them. This text provides sport management students with a comprehensive understanding of the complex topic of leadership in sport through a presentation of foundational and contemporary research, numerous practical examples and.
PDF | On Dec 5, , Doris Schedlitzki and others published Studying Leadership: Traditional and Critical Approaches, Second Edition | Find.