File Name: exam and answer on sustainable agriculture network certified system professional .zip
An important first step is to strengthen crops and improve soil health. Organic produce is in demand. We have a 25 year history of supplying quality products and programs to organic growers.
The SDG Impact Assessment Tool is a free, online resource for research and educational institutions, companies, entrepreneurs, civic organizations, and public agencies to make self-assessments of impacts on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals SDGs. The tool is open for anyone to use and can help you to identify relevant sustainability perspectives of your work in a simple and structured approach. The tool encourages reflection and collaborative learning of the SDGs and the links between them. Do we have positive, negative or no impact on a goal?
It also proposes policy options to increase adoption, based on these behavioural factors and embedded in the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Behavioural factors are grouped into three clusters, from more distal to more proximal: i dispositional factors; ii social factors and iii cognitive factors. Overall, the review demonstrates that considering behavioural factors enriches economic analyses of farmer decision-making, and can lead to more realistic and effective agri-environmental policies.
Within this literature, there is a burgeoning stream investigating the role of behavioural factors. These reviews are fragmented across disciplines Pannell et al. In this research context, the primary purpose of this paper is to provide a structured, integrative and updated overview of the literature on the behavioural factors that influence the adoption of environmentally sustainable farming practices.
We also aim at developing a simple and integrative taxonomy of behavioural factors, and to highlight the mechanisms and biases that explain how and why behavioural factors affect farmer decision-making. There is, however, still room for policy-makers to fully realise the potential of behavioural insights for agricultural policy.
The current debate regarding the post CAP reform may present an opportunity to further consider behavioural factors when designing agri-environmental policies. Because a behavioural perspective is particularly warranted when motivating voluntary adoption judging by the burgeoning literature on this topic , this potential increase of budget towards voluntary schemes further justifies the consideration of behavioural factors.
Conservation tillage, crop rotation, reduction of fertilisers, pesticides and fungicides, rotational grazing and landscape preservation are examples of such sustainable practices. The main remit of this review is the voluntary adoption of sustainable practices, regardless of whether it is government-supported or not.
We focus our review on individual decisions, thereby excluding coordinated efforts between farmers to protect the environment, which are associated with distinct behavioural factors e. We restrict our review to factors that have been found, over the past two decades, to be statistically significant in predicting the level of adoption of sustainable farming practices. We review findings from economics, psychology and sociology.
We also limit our review to studies conducted with farmers or landowners i. Comparing the effect sizes of these behavioural factors is beyond the scope of this paper. Whereas the review of behavioural factors covers studies conducted in any developed country, our policy recommendations are made in the specific context of the CAP. The rest of the paper is structured as follows. In Section 2 , we outline the main characteristics of farmer decision-making and our taxonomy of behavioural factors.
Section 6 discusses the contributions of this paper, farmer rationality, general policy implications, research gaps and the role of experimental research, before concluding in Section 7. Originally, behavioural insights, particularly nudges 5 were applied to consumers and citizens, such as their choice of a meal in a canteen, how much energy they consume at home, or whether they ask for a receipt at the restaurant Thaler and Sunstein, This does not mean, however, that these decisions are free from heuristics and biases nor that the outcome will be rational.
Although the assumption of rationality provides a broadly approximate, often statistically valid account of producer choices, it precludes a more nuanced understanding of actual not hypothesised behaviour Troussard and van Bavel, , which would be particularly inappropriate when studying the interactions between farmers and their environment Feola and Binder, They have general effects and are thus thought to be related to multiple behaviours Flay, Snyder and Petraitis, For instance, farmer personality and risk tolerance affect not only whether they adopt a particular sustainable practice, but also whether they vaccinate their livestock Sok et al.
They are, thus, decision-specific and vary case by case. Importantly, the malleability of behavioural factors — and thus the ease through which they can be altered through policy interventions — increases with their proximity to decision-making Alamian and Paradis, On this distal—proximal spectrum, we distinguish three types of behavioural factors that have a bearing on decision-making: dispositional, social and cognitive.
Dispositional factors 6 are the most distal: they are relatively stable, internal variables related to a given individual, such as personality, motivations, values, beliefs, general preferences and objectives Malle, They affect many decisions. Social factors may be proximal or distal; for instance, injunctive norms i.
Categorising behavioural factors into these three types and along this spectrum may be somewhat arbitrary, and the boundaries between them could be blurred. However, the purpose is to not to offer the final word on behavioural factors, but rather to facilitate thinking about them in an ordered and systematic way. Figure 1 illustrates where these three behavioural factors are positioned in relation to decision-making and the mechanisms and biases that explain how and why these behavioural factors affect the adoption of sustainable practices.
Mechanisms and biases in italics. Within each cluster, behavioural factors are not necessarily situated at the same distance proximal-distal to the adoption of environmentally sustainable practices.
Because they are relatively stable and do not relate exclusively to a specific decision, dispositional factors are relatively distal. Table 1. Literature on the role of dispositional factors on the adoption of sustainable farming practices. Personality traits are individual differences in patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving American Psychological Association, b.
Since personality traits consist in habitual patterns of behaviour, they are very distal from specific decision-making tasks. Of these, extraversion i. Personality also influences other behaviour by farmers, such as vaccinating livestock Sok et al. Resistance to change has been suggested as a reason that farmers may not adopt more sustainable practices Burton, Kuczera and Schwarz, Resistance to change and personality are linked: individuals scoring low on openness to new experiences may be particularly reluctant to change in general George and Zhou, The status quo bias, whereby people systematically prefer to keep their current practices because they perceive any change as a loss Samuelson and Zeckhauser, , is also intrinsically linked to resistance to change.
A recent meta-analysis on the role of the status quo bias in agri-environmental policy showed that a high percentage of farmers systematically reject change Barreiro-Hurle et al. Because inertia is strong among farmers Burton, Kuczera and Schwarz, ; Rodriguez et al. Risk tolerance is a key concept in behavioural economics. Risk tolerance 7 is a relatively stable disposition, closely related to the openness and extraversion personality traits mentioned previously Frey et al.
As a distal factor, it has been found to influence farmer behaviour across a wide range of areas, such as the signing of crop insurance contracts Hellerstein, Higgins and Horowitz, and the adoption of crop diversification Hellerstein, Higgins and Horowitz, , particular marketing strategies Pennings and Garcia, and crop innovations Ghadim, Pannell and Burton, Against the backdrop of increased income volatility, high levels of debt, low margins and extreme climate events European Commission, d , it is not surprising that European farmers are usually considered risk averse Pennings and Garcia, , leaving them little room for adopting new practices.
Some authors suggest that the relationship between risk tolerance and the adoption of sustainable farming practices is not direct Trujillo-Barrera, Pennings and Hofenk, Accordingly, risk tolerance moderates the negative link between the perceived financial risks of sustainable practices see below and their adoption: the impact of perceived financial risk on adoption is greater for risk-averse farmers than for risk-seekers.
Risk tolerance is at least partly influenced by culture: contrary to lay beliefs, people living in collectivist cultures tend to be less risk-averse than those living in individualist societies Weber and Hsee, ; Hsee and Weber, Farmers who show relatively high concern for others and score highly on empathy—sympathy are more likely to adopt conservation tillage Sheeder and Lynne, , to participate in voluntary forest preservation or wetland restoration Johansson, Rahm and Gyllin, Environmental concern relates to the affect associated with environmental problems Schultz et al.
Compared to other dispositional factors, environmental concern is more proximal to the decision to adopt sustainable practices.
Environmental concern influences both pro-environmental behaviour in the general population e. For instance, farmers who adopt sustainable practices are more likely than conventional farmers to be worried about water quality Michel-Guillou and Moser, Being a member of an environmental organisation, a proxy for environmental concern, leads farmers to accept some of the costs associated with conservation practices, which can mean that they bid below their costs when taking part in conservation auctions Palm-Forster, Swinton and Shupp, Feeling emotionally connected to nature is also correlated with conservation behaviour, such as the adoption of native vegetation protection measures Gosling and Williams, Environmental concern is driven by the ascription of personal responsibility for environmental damage that, for water pollution, may be low compared with industry and households Michel-Guillou and Moser, Farmers may also not feel personally responsible to change their current practices if they consider they are already doing enough to protect the environment.
Similarly, people seek to reduce the unpleasant emotions associated with environmental and moral concerns e. Avoiding guilty feelings is one reason farmers adopt organic practices Mzoughi, , and organic farmers are usually happier than conventional farmers Mzoughi, One potential drawback of the warm-glow process is that it can lead to moral licensing Blanken, Ven and Zeelenberg, , i.
Moral licensing is linked to the well-known rebound effect in energy economics Berkhout, Muskens and Velthuijsen, , which is an unexpected increase in energy consumption following an increase in fuel efficiency. Some qualitative evidence shows that participating in agri-environmental schemes may lead to some moral licensing Burton, Kuczera and Schwarz, , and theoretical work shows that the rebound effect may hold true for water irrigation Berbel and Mateos, Farming objectives are the goals that farmers pursue through their activity.
Raymond, Brown and Robinson reviewed evidence suggesting that the importance farmers give to conservation objectives has grown only marginally since the early s. Importantly, farmers often have conflicting objectives: most of them embrace both conservation and economic objectives but to varying degrees Gosling and Williams, Regarding sustainable practices, a common core running through several decades of research is that essentially farmers will adopt such practices if they expect these to help them achieve their objectives Pannell et al.
This finding may be surprising, considering that some sustainable practices are more profitable than conventional ones see the section on perceived costs and benefits. Most research on this topic focuses on the influence farming objectives have on the adoption of unsubsidised sustainable practices.
Yet participating in economically incentivised public schemes may well be in line with economic farming objectives for qualitative evidence, see Mills et al.
A survey carried out in five EU Member States showed that most farmers who participate in paid agri-environmental schemes are motivated by economic gains Pavlis et al.
As environmental concern, farming objectives are relatively more proximal to the decision to adopt more sustainable practices than other dispositional factors. They also influence decision-making through the avoidance of dissonance between goals and actions Festinger, ; Bardi and Schwartz, Regarding short-term approaches to addressing dispositional factors, one policy recommendation is to segment or target policies according to farmer heterogeneity, i.
For instance, it has been suggested that economic incentives should be targeted to farmers who place high value on profit as a farming objective, because farmers with intrinsic motivations to protect the environment may in some cases react negatively to payments Greiner and Gregg, ; Grolleau, Mzoughi and Thoyer, While segmenting agricultural policies based on dispositional behavioural factors is theoretically interesting, actually implementing this idea is difficult.
One issue is that policy-makers cannot directly observe these dispositional factors. Another major barrier is that agricultural policies need to treat all farmers equally. Two potential solutions that could be implemented within the CAP framework are worth pursuing and, to a certain extent, are already being applied. The first is to design a mix of policies based on voluntary and mandatory adoption of sustainable practices.
Voluntary schemes de facto target farmers who are relatively open to new experiences, prone to change, risk-seeking and concerned about morality and the environment, as these dispositional factors characterise farmers who willingly adopt sustainable practices. On the other hand, mandatory schemes can be a solution for other groups of more reluctant farmers. In this sense, introducing the greening layer as part of CAP direct payments in European Commission, could be seen as a tool based on the power of defaults to increase the adoption of sustainable practices.
However, the high proportion of farms exempt from greening requirements 9 has limited the impact of these on the adoption of sustainable practices.
The enhanced conditionality put forward in the Communication on the post CAP is an opportunity to further use the power of defaults to overcome behavioural barriers to adopting sustainable agricultural practices. These issues are particularly relevant in the light of the post CAP, since Member States will have to design appropriate mixes of voluntary and mandatory agri-environmental policies to achieve common EU objectives European Commission, c.
The second solution is based on the idea that farmers can be indirectly segmented according to more observable variables such as age, sex and country or region, which have been found to be correlated with some dispositional factors. For instance, the literature is rather consistent in showing that young people have a higher degree of environmental concern Diamantopoulos et al. To a certain extent, with its specific economic support for young farmers e.
Perhaps, then, segmenting the environmental components of the CAP, based on sociodemographic variables, is also possible. Designing country- or region-specific environmental policies also takes into account the heterogeneity of farmers. Culture plays a role in shaping the different dispositional factors influencing farmer decision-making.
Regional agroecological systems are examples of complex adaptive systems, where sustainability is promoted by social networks that facilitate information sharing, cooperation, and connectivity among specialized components of the system. Much of the existing literature on social capital fails to recognize how networks support multiple social processes. Our paper overcomes this problem by analyzing how the social networks of wine grape growers exhibit structural features related to multiple social processes: ties to central actors that build bridging social capital and facilitate the diffusion of innovations, ties that close triangles and build bonding social capital to solve cooperation dilemmas, and ties to individuals that span community boundaries to connect specialized components of the system. We use survey data to measure the communication networks of growers in three viticulture regions in California. A combination of descriptive statistics, conditional uniform random graph tests, and exponential random graph models provides empirical support for our hypotheses. The findings reflect regional differences in geography and institutional histories, which may influence the capacity to respond to regional environmental change. This paper analyzes the structure of social networks among wine grape growers in three regions of CA, USA, that have implemented sustainability partnerships.
There is now a long history of countries improving sustainability standards in most parts of the economy while at the same time pursuing the ambitions of rules-based international trade and economic integration with other countries. It is not surprising that countries at the vanguard of sustainability also tend to be the countries that are most open to trade. This Report looks closer at the interplay between the formulation of domestic standards and provisions in Free Trade Agreements that either acknowledge domestic standards or establish standards in a direct way. This interplay is crucial for two reasons: first to establish market access arrangements that help to promote sustainability standards, second to provide the policy basis to make standards and possible market access restrictions conducive to basic trade rules. It lays a focus particularly on the growing importance of sustainability standards in international trade agreements, or Free Trade Agreements FTAs — in particular for the food sector.
During our summer programs, we use a series of workshops to introduce youth participants and their youth leaders to the principles of sustainable agriculture and the food system. Here is the series that we have developed through the years. Workshop 1: Introduction to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems click here for PDF Introduction to sustainable agriculture principles and how they are used on the farm. Workshop 2: Soil Sleuths click here for PDF Introduction to soil function, components, and its impact on sustainable farming. Workshop 4: Insects-ploration click here for PDF Introduction to insects and their role in agriculture.
Biodynamic agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming , but it includes various esoteric concepts drawn from the ideas of Rudolf Steiner — Biodynamics has much in common with other organic approaches — it emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of synthetic artificial fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include its treatment of animals, crops, and soil as a single system, an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems, its use of traditional and development of new local breeds and varieties. Some methods use an astrological sowing and planting calendar.
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 1 January ; 7 Sustainable agriculture is among the most urgently needed work in the United States, for at least three reasons: we face an environmental crisis, a health crisis, and a rural economic crisis. Addressing these pressing crises through sustainability transition will require growing our agricultural workforce: both because the current farm population is aging, and because sustainable agriculture is knowledge-intensive work that substitutes experiential knowledge of farm ecosystems for harmful industrial inputs.
It also proposes policy options to increase adoption, based on these behavioural factors and embedded in the EU Common Agricultural Policy.
Она должна немедленно поговорить со Стратмором. Сьюзан осторожно приоткрыла дверь и посмотрела на глянцевую, почти зеркальную стену шифровалки. Узнать, следит ли за ней Хейл, было невозможно. Нужно быстро пройти в кабинет Стратмора, но, конечно, не чересчур быстро: Хейл не должен ничего заподозрить. Она уже была готова распахнуть дверь, как вдруг до нее донеслись какие-то звуки. Это были голоса.
Jump to Main Content.