File Name: ancient and medieval history of india .zip
All Rights Reserved. Follow Us On:. Ed Dip.
The books developed and distributed by the National Council of Education, Research and Training, are unbiased and well articulated. The information provided in these books is accurate, true and in depth. You can easily make factual notes out of these books, especially for history, economics, and geography. All the beginners or the new aspirants often ask the same question about why to prefer NCERT books especially the old NCERT books when there are hundreds of standard and advanced books available along with online material?
Our knowledge of the ancient world has been radically altered by impressive archaeological discoveries over the last two centuries. Yet, even during the nineteenth century British explorers and officials were curious about brick mounds dotting the landscape of northwest India, where Pakistan is today. A large one was located in a village named Harappa see Figure 3. A British army engineer, Sir Alexander Cunningham, sensed its importance because he also found other artifacts among the bricks, such as a seal with an inscription.
He was, therefore, quite dismayed that railway contractors were pilfering these bricks for ballast. But the excavation of Harappa did not begin until , and neither the Archaeological Survey nor Indian archaeologists understood their significance until this time.
Harappa, it turned out, was an an-cient city dating back to the third millennium BCE, and only one part of a much larg-er civilization sprawling over northwest India. Much like the states of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, the foundations for that history were established by Paleo-lithic foragers who migrated to and populated the region, and then Neolithic agriculturalists who settled into villages. During the third millennium BCE, building on these foundations, urban centers emerged along the Indus River, along with other elements that contribute to making a civilization.
While it declined, India saw waves of migration from the mountainous northwest, by a people who referred to themselves as Aryans. The Aryans brought a distinctive language and way of life to the northern half of India and, after first migrating into the Punjab and Indus Valley, pushed east along the Ganges River and settled down into a life of farming and pastoralism.
During the long course of the Vedic Age, states formed in northern India. The surplus from farming and pastoralism allowed people to engage in a multitude of other occupations and made for a lively trade. Villages thus grew in number and some became towns. Consequently, there was a need for greater leadership, something that was provided by chieftains of the many Aryan clans.
Over time, higher levels of political organization developed, and these chieftains became kings or the leaders of clan assemblies. By the end of the Vedic Age, northern India was divided up by sixteen major kingdoms and oligarchies. The ensuing three centuries c. These states fought with each other over territory. The most successful state was the one that could most effectively administer its land, mobilize its resources and, by so doing, field the largest armies.
That state was the kingdom of Magadha which, by the fourth century BCE, had gained control of much of northern India along the Ganges River. Through war and diplomacy, he and his two successors established control over most of India, forging the first major empire in the history of South Asia: the Mauryan Empire — BCE. But after his time, the empire rapidly declined, and India entered a new stage in its history.
After the Mauryan Empire fell, no one major power held control over a substantial part of India for five hundred years. Rather, from c. Some of these were located in northern India, along the Ganges River, but others grew up in the south—the Indian Peninsula—for the first time.
Also, some kingdoms emerged through foreign conquest. Outsiders in Central Asia and the Middle East saw India as a place of much wealth, and sought to plunder or rule it. Thus, throughout its history, India was repeatedly invaded by conquerors coming through mountain passes in the northwest. Many of these, like King Kanishka of the Kushan Empire c. Even after CE and up to the fifteenth century, India was never again unified for any length of time by one large empire.
The Guptas c. As their empire flourished, Indian intellectuals were also setting standards for excellence in the fields of art, architecture, literature, and science, in part because of Gupta patronage. But important kingdoms also developed in south India. The last period covered in this chapter is early medieval India c. After the Gupta Empire, and during the following seven centuries, the pattern of fragmentation intensified, as numerous regional kingdoms large and small frequently turned over.
Confronting such an unstable and fluid political scene, medieval kings granted land to loyal subordinate rulers and high officers of their courts. The resulting political and economic pattern is referred to as Indian feudalism. Also, kings put their greatness on display by waging war and building magnificent Hindu temples in their capital cities.
And, during the medieval period, a new political and religious force entered the Indian scene, when Muslim Arab and Turkic traders and conquerors arrived on the subcontinent. But the history of a civilization consists of more than just rulers and states, which is why historians also pay close attention to social, cultural, and economic life every step of the way. This attention is especially important for India. Although the Asian subcontinent sees a long succession of kingdoms and empires and was usually divided up by several at any particular point in its history, peoples over time came to share some things in common.
Socially, the peoples of India were largely organized by the caste system. Finally, throughout the ancient and medieval periods, India flourished as a civilization because of its dynamic economy. The peoples of India shared in that too, and that meant they were linked in networks of trade and exchange not only with other parts of South Asia but also with neighboring regions of the Afro-Eurasian world. Explain the early historical origins and basic beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism.
How do these religious traditions change over time? This history was also impacted by influxes of migrants and invaders. In thinking about the reasons for these patterns, historians highlight the size of India and its diverse geography and peoples.
Today, India usually designates the nation-state of India see Map 3. But modern India only formed in and includes much less territory than India did in ancient times. As a term, India was first invented by the ancient Greeks to refer to the Indus River and the lands and people beyond it. In fact, for the purpose of studying earlier history, India can be thought of as the territory that includes at least seven countries today: India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives.
This territory is also referred to as South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The Indian subcontinent is where Indian civilization took shape. Rather, the history of this region was shaped by a multitude of ethnic groups who spoke many different languages and lived and moved about on a diverse terrain suited to many different kinds of livelihood.
Large natural boundaries define the subcontinent. Mountain ranges ring the north, and bodies of water surround the rest. A subrange of the Himalaya—the Hindu Kush — sits at its western end, while a ridge running from north to south defines the eastern end, dividing India from China and mainland Southeast Asia. To the northwest, the Suleiman Range and Kirthar Range complete what might seem like impassable barriers. Yet, these ranges are punctuated by a few narrow passes that connect India to Central Asia and West Asia.
To the south of the mountain ranges lie the Indo-Gangetic Plain and the two great rivers of northern India that comprise it: the Indus River and the Ganges River. These rivers originate in the Himalaya and are regularly fed by snow melt and monsoon rains. The Indus River, which is located in the northwest and drains into the Arabian Sea, can be divided into an upper and lower region. The region comprising the upper Indus and its many tributary rivers is called the Punjab , while the region surrounding the lower Indus is referred to as the Sindh.
The Ganges River begins in the western Himalaya and flows southeast across northern India before draining into the Bay of Bengal. Peninsular India is also an important part of the story because over time great regional kingdoms will also emerge in the south. The peninsula is divided from northern India by the Vindhya Mountains, to the south of which lies the Deccan Plateau.
This arid plateau is bordered by two coastal ranges— the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats, beyond which are narrow coastal plains, the Malabar Coast and the Coromandel Coast. Sri Lanka is an island located about thirty kilometers southeast of the southernmost tip of India, and also served as an important conduit for trade and cultural contacts beyond India.
A century of archaeological work in India that began in not only revealed a lost civilization but also a massive one, surpassing in size other major early riverine civilizations of Afro-Eurasia, such as ancient Egypt and the Mesopotamian states. In an area spanning roughly a half million square miles, archaeologists have excavated thousands of settlements see Map 3.
These can be envisioned in a hierarchy based on size and sophistication. The top consists of five major cities of roughly acres each.
One of those is Harappa, and because it was excavated first the entire civilization was named Harappan Civilization.
The bottom of the hierarchy consists of fifteen thousand smaller agricultural and craft villages of about 2. Because the majority of these settlements were situated near the Indus River in the northwestern region of the subcontinent, this civilization is also called the Indus Valley Civilization. As with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, archaeologists have been able to sketch out how this civilization evolved out of the simpler agricultural villages of the Neolithic period.
On the subcontinent, farming and the domestication of animals began c. To the west of the Indus River, along the foothills of Baluchistan, the remains of numerous small villages have been found that date back to this time see Map 3. One of these is Mehrgarh. Here, villagers lived in simple mud-brick structures, grew barley and wheat, and raised cattle, sheep, and goats. Over the course of the next three thousand years, similar Neolithic communities sprang up not only in northwest India but also in many other locations on the subcontinent.
But it was to the west of the Indus River and then throughout neighboring fertile plains and valleys of the Punjab and Sindh that we see the transition to a more complex, urban-based civilization. Excavations throughout this region show a pattern of development whereby settlements start looking more like towns than villages: ground plans become larger, include the foundations of houses and streets, and are conveniently located by the most fertile land or places for trade.
Similar artifacts spread over larger areas show that the local communities building these towns were becoming linked together in trade networks.
Archaeologists date this transitional period when India was on the verge of its first civilization from to BCE. The mature phase, with its full-blown cities, begins from BCE, roughly four centuries after the Sumerian city-states blossomed and Egypt was unified under one kingdom.
The ruins of Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus cities dating to this mature phase suggest a vibrant society thriving in competently planned and managed urban areas. Some of the principal purposes of these urban settlements included coordinating the distribution of local surplus resources, obtaining desired goods from more distant places, and turning raw materials into commodities for trade.
Mohenjo-Daro, for instance, was located along the lower reaches of the Indus see Figure 3. That meant it was conveniently built amidst an abundance of resources: fertile flood plains for agriculture, pasture for grazing domesticated animals, and waters for fishing and fowling.
The city itself consisted of several mounds—elevated areas upon which structures and roads were built. A larger mound served as a core, fortified area where public functions likely took place. It contained a wall and large buildings, including what archaeologists call a Great Bath and Great Hall. Other mounds were the location of the residential and commercial sectors of the city.
Major avenues laid out on a grid created city blocks. Within a block, multistory dwellings opening up to interior courtyards were constructed out of mudbricks or bricks baked in kilns.
This post is a compilation of our most viewed notes on Indian History, which we think our readers should not miss. Check Indian History notes category, if you want to read the complete archives. For Mains topics like Ancient India and Medieval India are not explicitly mentioned in the syllabus, but culture is included which covers many aspects of ancient and medieval periods. Take a Free Test. History and Culture are very related topics, particularly with respect to ancient and medieval India.
For a period that has come to be so strongly associated with the Islamic influence and rule in India, Medieval Indian history went for almost three whole centuries under the so-called indigenous rulers, that included the Chalukyas, the Pallavas, the Pandyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Muslims rulers and finally the Mughal Empire. The most important dynasty to emerge in the middle of the 9 th century was that of the Cholas. Between 8 th and 10 th centuries A. The Pala king Dharmpala, son of Gopala reigned from the late 8 th century A. Nalanda University and Vikramashila University were founded by Dharmpala.
Our knowledge of the ancient world has been radically altered by impressive archaeological discoveries over the last two centuries. Yet, even during the nineteenth century British explorers and officials were curious about brick mounds dotting the landscape of northwest India, where Pakistan is today. A large one was located in a village named Harappa see Figure 3. A British army engineer, Sir Alexander Cunningham, sensed its importance because he also found other artifacts among the bricks, such as a seal with an inscription. He was, therefore, quite dismayed that railway contractors were pilfering these bricks for ballast. But the excavation of Harappa did not begin until , and neither the Archaeological Survey nor Indian archaeologists understood their significance until this time. Harappa, it turned out, was an an-cient city dating back to the third millennium BCE, and only one part of a much larg-er civilization sprawling over northwest India.
Readers can download each of the notes as PDF for free using the 'print-pdf' option. For Mains topics like Ancient India and Medieval India are not explicitly.
Satvahanas right up to the times of Harshavardhana. Rise and fall of empires and reign of kings has been placed in the context of the ancient social milieu, the existing varna system, developments in science and technology, commerce and trade and the cultural legacy that shaped society. The book takes the readers on a journey through time. Like his other books, this book too is very informative and the narrative is a compelling read.
During the journey of preparation for Civil Services we can't ignore History subject. History books are helpful as an Optional subject and for General Studies paper in the Prelims as well as in Mains exam. The syllabus of History subject is divided into ancient history, medieval history, modern history and world history. This book gives you the glimpse and description of the history of early India.
Satvahanas right up to the times of Harshavardhana. Rise and fall of empires and reign of kings has been placed in the context of the ancient social milieu, the existing varna system, developments in science and technology, commerce and trade and the cultural legacy that shaped society. The book takes the readers on a journey through time. Like his other books, this book too is very informative and the narrative is a compelling read. There are separate sections that detail about Harappan and Vedic civilization, the age of Mauryas and the rise of Buddhism and Jainism. At the end of the book you will find a note from the author on the transition from Ancient India to Medieval India. The main reason for its popularity is the fact that it is easy to read and the facts have been detailed in an easy to understand manner.
Famous towns of ancient India 3. Rajputs 7. Religion and culture in ancient India 8. History of South India. Vijayanagar and Bahamani Kingdom 3. Bhakti and Sufi movements 4.
Sony xperia mini pro pdf free haynes repair manual pdf downloadsAnatolio V. 23.05.2021 at 09:00
understanding of the Ancient and Medieval History of India and help all those civil service aspirants who have fire in their eyes and who dare to dream. Poonam.Nela S. 27.05.2021 at 17:13
Please note that you can subscribe to a maximum of 0 titles.