File Name: cause and effect of flood in philippines .zip
Flash flood and landslide disasters in the Philippines: reducing vulnerability and improving community resilience.
So given the above mentioned objectives, the project will offer an opportunity for collective problem solving, knowledge sharing, social exchange and community-wide participation at local and global scale.
Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Floods are caused by many factors or a combination of any of these generally prolonged heavy rainfall locally concentrated or throughout a catchment area , highly accelerated snowmelt , severe winds over water, unusual high tides, tsunamis , or failure of dams, levees , retention ponds , or other structures that retained the water. Flooding can be exacerbated by increased amounts of impervious surface or by other natural hazards such as wildfires, which reduce the supply of vegetation that can absorb rainfall.
Periodic floods occur on many rivers, forming a surrounding region known as the flood plain. During times of rain, some of the water is retained in ponds or soil, some is absorbed by grass and vegetation, some evaporates, and the rest travels over the land as surface runoff. Floods occur when ponds, lakes, riverbeds, soil, and vegetation cannot absorb all the water. This has been exacerbated by human activities such as draining wetlands that naturally store large amounts of water and building paved surfaces that do not absorb any water.
About 30 percent of all precipitation becomes runoff  and that amount might be increased by water from melting snow. River flooding is often caused by heavy rain, sometimes increased by melting snow. A flood that rises rapidly, with little or no warning, is called a flash flood.
Flash floods usually result from intense rainfall over a relatively small area, or if the area was already saturated from previous precipitation.
Even when rainfall is relatively light, the shorelines of lakes and bays can be flooded by severe winds—such as during hurricanes —that blow water into the shore areas.
Coastal areas are sometimes flooded by unusually high tides, such as spring tides , especially when compounded by high winds and storm surges. This was the cause of the North Sea flood of which flooded large swathes of the Netherlands and the East coast of England and which remains the greatest recorded natural disaster in England.
Flooding has many impacts. It damages property and endangers the lives of humans and other species. Rapid water runoff causes soil erosion and concomitant sediment deposition elsewhere such as further downstream or down a coast. The spawning grounds for fish and other wildlife habitats can become polluted or completely destroyed.
Some prolonged high floods can delay traffic in areas which lack elevated roadways. Floods can interfere with drainage and economical use of lands, such as interfering with farming. Structural damage can occur in bridge abutments , bank lines, sewer lines, and other structures within floodways.
Waterway navigation and hydroelectric power are often impaired. Financial losses due to floods are typically millions of dollars each year, with the worst floods in recent U. There are many disruptive effects of flooding on human settlements and economic activities. However, flooding can bring benefits, such as making the soil more fertile and providing it with more nutrients.
Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient communities along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River , among others. The viability for hydrologically based renewable sources of energy is higher in flood-prone regions.
Some methods of flood control have been practiced since ancient times. Many dams and their associated reservoirs are designed completely or partially to aid in flood protection and control. Other beneficial uses of dam created reservoirs include hydroelectric power generation, water conservation, and recreation. Reservoir and dam construction and design is based upon standards, typically set out by the government.
Design of a dam and reservoir follows guidelines set by the USACE and covers topics such as design flow rates in consideration to meteorological, topographic, streamflow, and soil data for the watershed above the structure.
The term dry dam refers to a dam that serves purely for flood control without any conservation storage e. Floods can be controlled by redirecting excess water to purpose-built canals or floodways, which in turn divert the water to temporary holding ponds or other bodies of water where there is a lower risk or impact to flooding. Excess water can be used for groundwater replenishment by diversion onto land that can absorb the water. This technique can reduce the impact of later droughts by using the ground as a natural reservoir.
It is being used in California, where orchards and vineyards can be flooded without damaging crops,  or in other places wilderness areas have been re-engineered to act as floodplains.
In many countries, rivers are prone to floods and are often carefully managed. Defenses such as levees, bunds , reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent rivers from bursting their banks. A weir , also known as a lowhead dam, is most often used to create millponds , but on the Humber River in Toronto, a weir was built near Raymore Drive to prevent a recurrence of the flood damage caused by Hurricane Hazel in October The Leeds flood alleviation scheme uses movable weirs which are lowered during periods of high water to reduce the chances of flooding upstream.
The Knostrop weir was operated during the England floods. They are designed to reduce potential flood levels by up to one metre. Coastal flooding has been addressed with coastal defences, such as sea walls , beach nourishment , and barrier islands. Tide gates are used in conjunction with dykes and culverts. They can be placed at the mouth of streams or small rivers, where an estuary begins or where tributary streams, or drainage ditches connect to sloughs. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent tidal waters from moving upland, and open during outgoing tides to allow waters to drain out via the culvert and into the estuary side of the dike.
The opening and closing of the gates is driven by a difference in water level on either side of the gate. The Living Breakwaters initiative is the result of an Obama-era competition for innovative designs to prevent further flooding in coastal communities during harsh weather conditions. One of the areas that got hit hardest was Staten Island's South Shore where the beach community of Tottenville saw sixteen-foot waves that destroyed homes and killed two residents Dejean.
Ten teams submitted designs and six of them were eventually awarded funding for their respective projects. One winning design was the Living Breakwaters initiative proposed by landscape architect Kate Orff. SCAPE's green infrastructure solution will be implemented in three stages beginning in Tottenville, subsequently expanding to the surrounding areas, and to be completed in Melcher. The plan aims to protect the South Shore of Staten Island from future storm damage, employing oysters to purify the water and restore the coastline.
They claim that the breakwaters will protect the coastline from the intense storm conditions caused by climate change and the wave protection will reduce erosion which has greatly contributed to habitat loss in the area Dejean. The living breakwaters, however, are not going to exist in an isolated system.
SCAPE's design is a part of a layered approach that includes partnerships with the Billion Oyster Project and the Tottenville Shoreline Protection Project, a separately funded project to build similar shoreline protection structures. This information hopes to encourage residents of Tottenville the surrounding areas to practice sustainable habits, prevent pollution, and continue to engage with the project in the future.
The self-closing flood barrier SCFB is a flood defense system designed to protect people and property from inland waterway floods caused by heavy rainfall, gales or rapid melting snow. The barrier system is constantly ready to deploy in a flood situation, it can be installed in any length and uses the rising flood water to deploy.
When permanent defenses fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or inflatable impermeable sacks are used. In , a method of using water to control flooding was discovered. This was accomplished by containing 2 parallel tubes within a third outer tube.
When filled, this structure formed a non-rolling wall of water that can control 80 percent of its height in external water depth, with dry ground behind it. Instead of trucking in sandbag material for a flood, stacking it, then trucking it out to a hazmat disposal site, flood control can be accomplished by using the on site water.
However, these are not fool proof. A 8 feet 2. In , a group of Norwegian engineers patented a transportable, removable, and reusable flood barrier which uses the water's weight against itself.
This removable flood panels protect cities and public utilities. Other solutions, such as HydroSack , are polypropylene exteriors with wood pulp within, though they are one-time use. One way of reducing the damage caused by flooding is to remove buildings from flood-prone areas, leaving them as parks or returning them to wilderness.
Floodplain buyout programs have been operated in places like New Jersey both before and after Hurricane Sandy ,  Charlotte, North Carolina ,  and Missouri. In the United States, FEMA produces flood insurance rate maps that identify areas of future risk, enabling local governments to apply zoning regulations to prevent or minimize property damage. Buildings and other urban infrastructure can be designed so that even if a flood does happen, the city can recover quickly and costs are minimized.
For example, homes can be put on stilts,  electrical and HVAC equipment can be put on the roof instead of in the basement, and subway entrances and tunnels can have built-in movable water barriers. An elaborate system of flood way defenses can be found in the Canadian province of Manitoba.
As is the case with all north-flowing rivers in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, snow melt in southern sections may cause river levels to rise before northern sections have had a chance to completely thaw.
This can lead to devastating flooding, as occurred in Winnipeg during the spring of To protect the city from future floods, the Manitoba government undertook the construction of a massive system of diversions, dikes, and flood ways including the Red River Floodway and the Portage Diversion.
The system kept Winnipeg safe during the flood which devastated many communities upriver from Winnipeg, including Grand Forks , North Dakota and Ste. Agathe , Manitoba. In the United States, the U. Army Corps of Engineers is the lead flood control agency. In the New Orleans Metropolitan Area , 35 percent of which sits below sea level, is protected by hundreds of miles of levees and flood gates.
This system failed catastrophically , with numerous breaks, during Hurricane Katrina in the city proper and in eastern sections of the Metro Area, resulting in the inundation of approximately 50 percent of the metropolitan area, ranging from a few inches to twenty feet in coastal communities. The Morganza Spillway provides a method of diverting water from the Mississippi River when a river flood threatens New Orleans , Baton Rouge and other major cities on the lower Mississippi. It is the largest of a system of spillways and floodways along the Mississippi.
Completed in , the spillway has been opened twice, in and in In an act of successful flood prevention, the federal government offered to buy out flood-prone properties in the United States in order to prevent repeated disasters after the flood across the Midwest. Several communities accepted and the government, in partnership with the state, bought 25, properties which they converted into wetlands.
These wetlands act as a sponge in storms and in , when the floods returned, the government did not have to expend resources in those areas. D and also constructed a sluice on the Kazuno River. In China flood diversion areas are rural areas that are deliberately flooded in emergencies in order to protect cities.
The consequences of deforestation and changing land use on the risk and severity of flooding are subjects of discussion. In assessing the impacts of Himalayan deforestation on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands , it was found that forests would not have prevented or significantly reduced flooding in the case of an extreme weather event. Many have proposed that loss of vegetation deforestation will lead to an increased risk of flooding.
With natural forest cover the flood duration should decrease. Reducing the rate of deforestation should improve the incidents and severity of floods.
Following the misery and destruction caused by the Great Flood of Paris , the French government built a series of reservoirs called Les Grands Lacs de Seine or Great Lakes which helps remove pressure from the Seine during floods, especially the regular winter flooding.
Flooding is experienced all over the globe and for a variety of reasons — but why exactly does flooding occur? There are several human causes of flooding, including poorly designed infrastructure. There are also natural reasons flooding happens. Here are eight of the most common causes of flooding, both natural and human-induced. And the consequences of flooding can be savage.
PDF | Flooding is considered one of the most widespread of climatic hazards that poses Health Effects of Flood Disasters in the Philippines.
This paper presents thedifferential impacts of flood hazards amongstreet children, the urban poor andresidents of wealthy neighborhoods in MetroManila, Philippines. It argues that beingpoor is not the only reason why certainsectors are more vulnerable to floods orany environmental hazards — spatialisolation and lack of participation indecision making intensify their presentand future vulnerability, as well. Archival research, interviews, focusedgroup discussion, participant observationand surveys of populations at risk areemployed to delineate the flood experiencesand coping strategies of street childrenand residents of poor urban settlements andwealthy neighborhoods in Metro Manila atthe household and community levels. Theconcept of entitlement, the ContextualHazards Model, and the Access Model areused in the data analysis andinterpretation.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Flood risk management seeks to reduce the risk from flood events to the people who are located in floodprone areas. As indicated in earlier chapters, there is some level of risk to all locations within the floodplain. The magnitude of that risk is a function of the flood hazard, the characteristics of a particular location its elevation, proximity to the river or coast, and susceptibility to fast-moving flows and surges, etc. Each mitigation and risk transfer measure reduces the overall risk to some degree, but it is impossible to completely eliminate risk. A flood risk management strategy identifies and implements measures that reduce the overall risk and what remains is the residual risk Figure
Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters. Floods are caused by many factors or a combination of any of these generally prolonged heavy rainfall locally concentrated or throughout a catchment area , highly accelerated snowmelt , severe winds over water, unusual high tides, tsunamis , or failure of dams, levees , retention ponds , or other structures that retained the water. Flooding can be exacerbated by increased amounts of impervious surface or by other natural hazards such as wildfires, which reduce the supply of vegetation that can absorb rainfall. Periodic floods occur on many rivers, forming a surrounding region known as the flood plain. During times of rain, some of the water is retained in ponds or soil, some is absorbed by grass and vegetation, some evaporates, and the rest travels over the land as surface runoff.
PDF | This study provides insights on the impacts of both large and small-scale floods in the education sector of Metro Manila, Philippines and how they. impact these cause is largely undocumented, and they are wholly ne-.
The database is compiled from various sources, including UN agencies, non-governmental organisations, insurance companies, research institutes and press agencies.