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Gabor Agoston Firearms And Military Adaptation Journal Of World History Pdf

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The origins of European volley fire date back to the s, but no western army, with the possible exception of the Dutch in , was able to use this tactic in action until the s. Furthermore, it has been thus far assumed that the Ottomans failed to adopt this new tactic and thus experienced setbacks in the face of their European adversaries during this period. By utilising hitherto overlooked Ottoman narrative and visual sources, this article first shows that the Janissaries were indeed using volley fire in action in , and possibly before.

Ottoman Empire

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Conference proceedings. Papers Table of contents 17 papers About About these proceedings Table of contents Search within book. Front Matter Pages i-xiii. Pages Front Matter Pages An Overview. Back Matter Pages About these proceedings Introduction This book explores the various historical and cultural aspects of scientific, medical and technical exchanges that occurred between central Europe and Asia.

A number of papers investigate the printing, gunpowder, guncasting, shipbuilding, metallurgical and drilling technologies while others deal with mapping techniques, the adoption of written calculation and mechanical clocks as well as the use of medical techniques such as pulse taking and electrotherapy.

While human mobility played a significant role in the exchange of knowledge, translating European books into local languages helped the introduction of new knowledge in mathematical, physical and natural sciences from central Europe to its periphery and to the Middle East and Asian cultures.

The book argues that the process of transmission of knowledge whether theoretical or practical was not a simple and one-way process from the donor to the receiver as it is often admitted, but a multi-dimensional and complex cultural process of selection and transformation where ancient scientific and local traditions and elements.

The book explores the issue from a different geopolitical perspective, namely not focusing on a singular recipient and several points of distribution, namely the metropolitan centres of science, medicine, and technology, but on regions that are both recipients and distributors and provides new perspectives based on newly investigated material for historical studies on the cross scientific exchanges between different parts of the world.

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Journal of World History

Barbara Kellner-Heinkele : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. For four or more authors in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if you think it important.

Ottoman Empire

The chapter studies early modern Ottoman history in its Eurasian context, as the Ottomans established relations with, fought wars against, influenced, and were influenced by their neighbours and rivals. Therefore, the chapter examines these capabilities and the continually evolving socio-economic systems and institutions that made Ottoman military might possible. Blending history and historiography, sub-sections discuss the emergence of the Ottoman dynasty, the question of religiously motivated conquest during the formation of the early Ottoman polity, the significance of the conquest of Byzantine Constantinople, the Ottoman prebendal system and households as sinews of Ottoman power, Ottoman pragmatism in administering the empire, evolving Ottoman boundary conceptions and policies, the role of diplomacy in European—Ottoman relations, the crises of the seventeenth century, and the resultant Ottoman military and fiscal transformations. Keywords: Ottoman empire , Constantinople , diplomacy , borders and borderlands , wars , state finances.

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent , the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe , Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus , North Africa and the Horn of Africa. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy over the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean Basin , the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians.

Ottoman victory [1] [2]. At Chaldiran, the Ottomans had a larger, better equipped army numbering 60, to , as well as many heavy artillery pieces, while the Safavid army numbered some 40, to 80, and did not have artillery at its disposal. Ismail I , the leader of the Safavids, was wounded and almost captured during the battle. His wives were captured by the Ottoman leader Selim I , [19] with at least one married off to one of Selim's statesmen.

Ottoman Studies

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Conference proceedings. About About these proceedings Papers Table of contents 17 papers About these proceedings Introduction This book explores the various historical and cultural aspects of scientific, medical and technical exchanges that occurred between central Europe and Asia. A number of papers investigate the printing, gunpowder, guncasting, shipbuilding, metallurgical and drilling technologies while others deal with mapping techniques, the adoption of written calculation and mechanical clocks as well as the use of medical techniques such as pulse taking and electrotherapy.

Template:History of the Ottoman Empire. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent , the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe , parts of Central Europe , Western Asia , parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus , North Africa , and the Horn of Africa. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin , the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent , this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. Thus over the course of the nineteenth century the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans , where a number of new states emerged. During this time, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians , Assyrians and Pontic Greeks.


Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, (pp. ). GÁBOR ÁGOSTON. elizabethsid.org​stable/.


Battle of Chaldiran

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The Military Revolution is the theory that a series of radical changes in military strategy and tactics during the 16th and 17th centuries resulted in major lasting changes in governments and society. The theory was introduced by Michael Roberts in the s as he focused on Sweden — searching for major changes in the European way of war caused by introduction of portable firearms. Roberts linked military technology with larger historical consequences, arguing that innovations in tactics, drill and doctrine by the Dutch and Swedes —, which maximized the utility of firearms, led to a need for more trained troops and thus for permanent forces standing armies. Armies grew much larger and more expensive. These changes in turn had major political consequences in the level of administrative support and the supply of money, men and provisions, producing new financial demands and the creation of new governmental institutions.

A cannon is a large- caliber gun classified as a type of artillery , and usually launches a projectile using explosive chemical propellant. In the past, black gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder during the late 19th century. Cannons vary in gauge , effective range , mobility , rate of fire , angle of fire and firepower ; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube , cane , or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery , if not a more specific term such as howitzer or mortar , except for high-caliber automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons.

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Science between Europe and Asia

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How did paramilitarism develop into the modern age? The twentieth century has seen forms of paramilitarism ranging from the Freikorps in Germany early on in the century, to the Sudanese Janjaweed militias a century later, and a myriad of armed groups in between. Although these militias all originated under differing conditions and in different societies, their functions, logics, and dynamics demonstrate compelling similarities and instructive differences. This chapter traces the historical context of modern paramilitarism by developing an explicitly global review of these scenarios.

The chapter studies early modern Ottoman history in its Eurasian context, as the Ottomans established relations with, fought wars against, influenced, and were influenced by their neighbours and rivals. Therefore, the chapter examines these capabilities and the continually evolving socio-economic systems and institutions that made Ottoman military might possible. Blending history and historiography, sub-sections discuss the emergence of the Ottoman dynasty, the question of religiously motivated conquest during the formation of the early Ottoman polity, the significance of the conquest of Byzantine Constantinople, the Ottoman prebendal system and households as sinews of Ottoman power, Ottoman pragmatism in administering the empire, evolving Ottoman boundary conceptions and policies, the role of diplomacy in European—Ottoman relations, the crises of the seventeenth century, and the resultant Ottoman military and fiscal transformations.

Беккер вежливо улыбнулся и вышел на улицу - в душную севильскую ночь. ГЛАВА 42 Вернувшись в комнату, Сьюзан, не находя себе места, нервно ходила из угла в угол, терзаясь мыслью о том, что так и не выбрала момент, чтобы разоблачить Хейла. А тот спокойно сидел за своим терминалом. - Стресс - это убийца, Сью. Что тебя тревожит.

Battle of Chaldiran

Веревка даже не была как следует натянута.

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Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Gábor Ágoston · Journal of World History · University of Hawai'i Press states in Europe—and, on a global scale, to the “rise of the West.” pdf.

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