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Different Types Of Diseases And Their Causes Pdf

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Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful.

These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly. Examples of pathogens include:. They can spread in several different ways, including through:.

Microbes and disease

The kidneys are a pair of fist-sized organs located at the bottom of the rib cage. There is one kidney on each side of the spine.

Kidneys are essential to having a healthy body. They are mainly responsible for filtering waste products, excess water, and other impurities out of the blood. These toxins are stored in the bladder and then removed during urination. The kidneys also regulate pH, salt, and potassium levels in the body.

They produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and control the production of red blood cells. The kidneys even activate a form of vitamin D that helps the body absorb calcium. Kidney disease affects approximately 26 million American adults.

Damage may be caused by diabetes , high blood pressure , and various other chronic long-term conditions. Kidney disease can lead to other health problems, including weak bones, nerve damage, and malnutrition. If the disease gets worse over time, your kidneys may stop working completely. This means that dialysis will be required to perform the function of the kidneys. Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine.

The most common form of kidney disease is chronic kidney disease. High blood pressure is dangerous for the kidneys because it can increase the pressure on the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys where blood is cleaned. Over time, the increased pressure damages these vessels and kidney function begins to decline. Kidney function will eventually deteriorate to the point where the kidneys can no longer perform their job properly. In this case, a person would need to go on dialysis.

Dialysis filters extra fluid and waste out of the blood. A kidney transplant may be another treatment option depending on your circumstances.

Diabetes is also a major cause of chronic kidney disease. Diabetes is a group of diseases that causes high blood sugar. The increased level of sugar in the blood damages the blood vessels in the kidneys over time. Kidney failure can occur when your body becomes overloaded with toxins.

Kidney stones are another common kidney problem. They occur when minerals and other substances in the blood crystallize in the kidneys, forming solid masses stones. Kidney stones usually come out of the body during urination. Passing kidney stones can be extremely painful, but they rarely cause significant problems. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli. Glomeruli are extremely small structures inside the kidneys that filter the blood.

Glomerulonephritis can be caused by infections, drugs, or congenital abnormalities disorders that occur during or shortly after birth. It often gets better on its own. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that causes numerous cysts small sacs of fluid to grow in the kidneys. These cysts can interfere with kidney function and cause kidney failure. Polycystic kidney disease is a separate, more serious condition. Urinary tract infections UTIs are bacterial infections of any part of the urinary system.

Infections in the bladder and urethra are the most common. They are easily treatable and rarely lead to more health problems. However, if left untreated, these infections can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure. Kidney disease is a condition that can easily go unnoticed until the symptoms become severe.

The following symptoms are early warning signs that you might be developing kidney disease:. People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing kidney disease. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease, accounting for about 44 percent of new cases. You may also be more likely to get kidney disease if you:. Your doctor will first determine whether you belong in any of the high-risk groups.

They will then run some tests to see if your kidneys are functioning properly. These tests may include:. This test will measure how well your kidneys are working and determine the stage of kidney disease. Ultrasounds and CT scans produce clear images of your kidneys and urinary tract. The pictures allow your doctor to see if your kidneys are too small or large.

They can also show any tumors or structural problems that may be present. The tissue sample can help your doctor determine the type of kidney disease you have and how much damage has occurred. Your doctor may request a urine sample to test for albumin. Albumin is a protein that can be passed into your urine when your kidneys are damaged. Creatinine is a waste product. Treatment for kidney disease usually focuses on controlling the underlying cause of the disease.

This means your doctor will help you better manage your blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels. They may use one or more of the following methods to treat kidney disease. Your doctor will either prescribe angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril and ramipril, or angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs , such as irbesartan and olmesartan.

These are blood pressure medications that can slow the progression of kidney disease. You may also be treated with cholesterol drugs such as simvastatin.

These medications can reduce blood cholesterol levels and help maintain kidney health. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may also prescribe drugs to relieve swelling and treat anemia decrease in the number of red blood cells.

Making changes to your diet is just as important as taking medication. Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent many of the underlying causes of kidney disease. Your doctor may recommend that you:. Learn more: What do you want to know about fitness and exercise? Dialysis is an artificial method of filtering the blood. Many people with late-stage kidney disease must go on dialysis permanently or until a donor kidney is found. In hemodialysis, the blood is pumped through a special machine that filters out waste products and fluid.

Hemodialysis is done at your home or in a hospital or dialysis center. Most people have three sessions per week, with each session lasting three to five hours. However, hemodialysis can also be done in shorter, more frequent sessions. Several weeks before starting hemodialysis, most people will have surgery to create an arteriovenous AV fistula. An AV fistula is created by connecting an artery and a vein just below the skin, typically in the forearm.

The larger blood vessel allows an increased amount of blood to flow continuously through the body during hemodialysis treatment. This means more blood can be filtered and purified.

The most common side effects of hemodialysis are low blood pressure , muscle cramping, and itching. In peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum membrane that lines the abdominal wall stands in for the kidneys. A tube is implanted and used to fill the abdomen with a fluid called dialysate. Waste products in the blood flow from the peritoneum into the dialysate. The dialysate is then drained from the abdomen. There are two forms of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, where the abdomen is filled and drained several times during the day, and continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis, which uses a machine to cycle the fluid in and out of the abdomen at night while the person sleeps.

The most common side effects of peritoneal dialysis are infections in the abdominal cavity or in the area where the tube was implanted. Other side effects may include weight gain and hernias. A hernia is when the intestine pushes through a weak spot or tear in the lower abdominal wall. Kidney disease can get worse over time. It may even lead to kidney failure. Kidney failure can be life-threatening if left untreated. Kidney failure occurs when your kidneys are barely working or not working at all.

This is managed by dialysis. Dialysis involves the use of a machine to filter waste from your blood. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a kidney transplant. Some risk factors for kidney disease — such as age, race, or family history — are impossible to control. However, there are measures you can take to help prevent kidney disease:. You should always follow the dosage instructions for over-the-counter medications.

Taking too much aspirin Bayer or ibuprofen Advil, Motrin can cause kidney damage.

What to know about infections

The kidneys are a pair of fist-sized organs located at the bottom of the rib cage. There is one kidney on each side of the spine. Kidneys are essential to having a healthy body. They are mainly responsible for filtering waste products, excess water, and other impurities out of the blood. These toxins are stored in the bladder and then removed during urination.

Foodborne illness is caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing microbes or pathogens can contaminate foods, so there are many different types of foodborne illnesses. Most foodborne diseases are infections caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Other diseases are poisonings caused by harmful toxins or chemicals that have contaminated food. Of note many foodborne pathogens also can be acquired through recreational or drinking water, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread. Please report your suspected foodborne illness to the Minnesota Department of Health. Complete this free online training and the Minnesota Department of Health will provide certification that your venue has learned about these issues.

Communicable Diseases Module: 1. Basic Concepts in the Transmission of Communicable Diseases

Zoonosis is another name for a zoonotic disease. This type of disease passes from an animal or insect to a human. Zoonotic diseases range from minor short-term illness to a major life-changing illness.

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Kidney Health and Kidney Disease Basics

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