File Name: fish disease diagnosis and treatment .zip
Central Institute of Fisheries Education,. Email: arunsaqua gmail. Diagnosis is a label given for a medical condition or disease identified by its signs, symptoms, and from the results of various diagnostic procedures. The term "diagnostic criteria" designates the combination of signs, symptoms, and test results that allows the clinician to ascertain the diagnosis of the respective disease. Proper diagnosis leads to accurate therapies and avoid indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutics.
The document provides and introduction to disease, the types of fish diseases and what to do if fish are sick. Fish health management is a term used in aquaculture to describe management practices which are designed to prevent fish disease.
Once fish get sick it can be difficult to salvage them. Successful fish health management begins with prevention of disease rather than treatment. Prevention of fish disease is accomplished through good water quality management, nutrition, and sanitation. Without this foundation it is impossible to prevent outbreaks of opportunistic diseases. The fish is constantly bathed in potential pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
Even use of sterilization technology i. Suboptimal water quality, poor nutrition, or immune system suppression generally associated with stressful conditions allow these potential pathogens to cause disease.
Medications used to treat these diseases provide a means of buying time for fish and enabling them to overcome opportunistic infections, but are no substitute for proper animal husbandry. Daily observation of fish behavior and feeding activity allows early detection of problems when they do occur so that a diagnosis can be made before the majority of the population becomes sick. If treatment is indicated, it will be most successful if it is implemented early in the course of the disease while the fish are still in good shape.
Fish disease is a substantial source of monetary loss to aquaculturists. Production costs are increased by fish disease outbreaks because of the investment lost in dead fish, cost of treatment, and decreased growth during convalescence. In nature we are less aware of fish disease problems because sick animals are quickly removed from the population by predators. In addition, fish are much less crowded in natural systems than in captivity. Parasites and bacteria may be of minimal significance under natural conditions, but can cause substantial problems when animals are crowded and stressed under culture conditions.
Disease is rarely a simple association between a pathogen and a host fish. Usually other circumstances must be present for active disease to develop in a population. These circumstances are generally grouped under the umbrella term "Stress" Figure 1. Management practices directed at limiting stress are likely to be most effective in preventing disease outbreaks.
The most obvious sign of sick fish is the presence of dead or dying animals. However, the careful observer can usually tell that fish are sick before they start dying because sick fish often stop feeding and may appear lethargic. Healthy fish should eat aggressively if fed at regularly scheduled times.
Pond fish should not be visible except at feeding time. Fish that are observed hanging listlessly in shallow water, gasping at the surface, or rubbing against objects indicate something may be wrong. These behavioral abnormalities indicate that the fish are not feeling well or that something is irritating them. In addition to behavioral changes, there are physical signs that should alert producers to potential disease problems in their fish.
These include the presence of sores ulcers or hemorrhages , ragged fins, or abnormal body confirmation i. When these abnormalities are observed, the fish should be evaluated for parasitic or bacterial infections. If you suspect that fish are getting sick, the first thing to do is check the water quality. If you do not have a water quality test kit, contact your county extension office; some counties have been issued these kits, and your extension agent may be able to help you. If your county is not equipped with a water quality test kit, call the aquaculture extension specialist nearest to you see the list at the end of this publication.
Anyone contemplating commercial production of fish should invest in a water quality test kit and learn how to use it. Low oxygen is a frequent cause of fish mortality in ponds, especially in the summer. High levels of ammonia are also commonly associated with disease outbreaks when fish are crowded in vats or tanks. Separate extension fact sheets are available that explain oxygen cycles, ammonia cycles, and management of these water quality problems.
In general, check dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, and pH, during a minimum water quality screen associated with a fish disease outbreak. The parameters of significance include total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate saltwater systems and chlorine if using city water. Ideally, daily records should be available for immediate reference when a fish disease outbreak occurs. These should include the dates fish were stocked, size of fish at stocking, source of fish, feeding rate, growth rate, daily mortality and water quality.
This information is needed by the aquaculture specialist working with you to solve your fish disease problem. Good records, a description of behavioral and physical signs exhibited by sick fish, and results of water quality tests provide a complete case history for the diagnostician working on your case. A list of public resources is included at the end of this publication.
If you decide to submit fish to a diagnostic laboratory you should collect live, sick fish, place them in a freezer bag without water , and ship them on ice to the nearest facility. Oxygen gas can be injected into the bag prior to sealing it. An insulated container is recommended for shipping live, bagged fish as temperature fluctuations during transit are minimized. In addition to fish samples, a water sample collected in a clean jar should also be submitted.
There are two broad categories of disease that affect fish, infectious and non-infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic organisms present in the environment or carried by other fish. They are contagious diseases, and some type of treatment may be necessary to control the disease outbreak. In contrast, non-infectious diseases are caused by environmental problems, nutritional deficiencies, or genetic anomalies; they are not contagious and usually cannot be cured by medications.
Infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are broadly categorized as parasitic, bacterial, viral, or fungal diseases. Parasitic diseases of fish are most frequently caused by small microscopic organisms called protozoa which live in the aquatic environment. There are a variety of protozoans which infest the gills and skin of fish causing irritation, weight loss, and eventually death. Most protozoan infections are relatively easy to control using standard fishery chemicals such as copper sulfate, formalin, or potassium permanganate.
Information on specific diseases and proper use of fishery chemicals is available from your aquaculture extension specialist. Bacterial diseases are often internal infections and require treatment with medicated feeds containing antibiotics which are approved for use in fish by the Food and Drug Administration.
Typically fish infected with a bacterial disease will have hemorrhagic spots or ulcers along the body wall and around the eyes and mouth. They may also have an enlarged, fluid-filled abdomen, and protruding eyes.
Bacterial diseases can also be external, resulting in erosion of skin and ulceration. Columnaris is an example of an external bacterial infection which may be caused by rough handling.
Viral diseases are impossible to distinguish from bacterial diseases without special laboratory tests. They are difficult to diagnose and there are no specific medications available to cure viral infections of fish.
The most important viral infection which affects fish production in the southeastern United States is Channel Catfish Virus Disease, caused by a herpes virus. Consultation with an aquaculture or fish health specialist is recommended if you suspect a bacterial or viral disease is killing your fish. Fungal diseases are the fourth type of infectious disease. Fungal spores are common in the aquatic environment, but do not usually cause disease in healthy fish. When fish are infected with an external parasite, bacterial infection, or injured by handling, the fungi can colonize damaged tissue on the exterior of the fish.
These areas appear to have a cottony growth or may appear as brown matted areas when the fish are removed from the water. Formalin or potassium permanganate are effective against most fungal infections. Since fungi are usually a secondary problem it is important to diagnose the original problem and correct it as well. Non-infectious diseases. Non-infectious diseases can be broadly categorized as environmental, nutritional, or genetic. Environmental diseases are the most important in commercial aquaculture.
Environmental diseases include low dissolved oxygen, high ammonia, high nitrite or natural or man-made toxins in the aquatic environment.
Proper techniques of managing water quality will enable producers to prevent most environmental diseases. There are separate IFAS publications which address water quality management in greater detail.
Nutritional diseases can be very difficult to diagnose. A classic example of a nutritional disease of catfish is "broken back disease," caused by vitamin C deficiency. The lack of dietary vitamin C contributes to improper bone development, resulting in deformation of the spinal column. Another important nutritional disease of catfish is "no blood disease" which may be related to a folic acid deficiency.
Affected fish become anemic and may die. The condition seems to disappear when the deficient feed is discarded and a new feed provided. Additional information on nutrition of fish is available through your aquaculture veterinary extension specialist. Genetic abnormalities include conformational oddities such as lack of a tail or presence of an extra tail. Most of these are of minimal significance; however, it is important to bring in unrelated fish for use as broodstock every few years to minimize inbreeding.
There are many diseases of fish which can be troublesome to commercial producers as well as the recreational pond owner. Many disease outbreaks of captive fish stocks are associated with stressful conditions such as poor water quality, excessive crowding or inadequate nutrition. There are two broad categories of disease which relate directly to selection of appropriate treatments:.
Fish disease outbreaks are often complex, involving both infectious and non-infectious processes. Appropriate therapy often involves medication and changes in husbandry practices. A list of public laboratories available to assist with diagnoses of fish disease is provided for your convenience at the end of this publication. There are many private veterinarians willing to see fish or aquaculture species in their practice.
Your aquaculture veterinary extension specialist may be able to refer you to a veterinarian in your area. What Is Fish Health Management?
The Significance of Fish Disease to Aquaculture Fish disease is a substantial source of monetary loss to aquaculturists. Disease rarely results from simple contact between the fish and a potential pathogen.
Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. Fish defences against disease are specific and non-specific. Non-specific defences include skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps microorganisms and inhibits their growth. If pathogens breach these defences, fish can develop inflammatory responses that increase the flow of blood to infected areas and deliver white blood cells that attempt to destroy the pathogens. Specific defences are specialised responses to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, that is adaptative immune responses. Some commercially important fish diseases are VHS , ich and whirling disease.
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This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. If you need medical advice, you can look for doctors or other healthcare professionals who have experience with this disease. You may find these specialists through advocacy organizations, clinical trials, or articles published in medical journals.
Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, Second Edition provides thorough, yet concise descriptions of viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and.
Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, Second Edition is the must-have reference for any aquaculturists, aquatic biologists, or fish health specialists dealing with diagnosing or treating fish diseases. Read more Rating: not yet rated 0 with reviews - Be the first. Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Finding libraries that hold this item
The document provides and introduction to disease, the types of fish diseases and what to do if fish are sick. Fish health management is a term used in aquaculture to describe management practices which are designed to prevent fish disease. Once fish get sick it can be difficult to salvage them. Successful fish health management begins with prevention of disease rather than treatment.
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Fish Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, Second Edition provides thorough, yet concise descriptions of viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and noninfectious.Millie W. 25.05.2021 at 09:20
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