File Name: dominance and diversity in land plant communities .zip
The concept of the biome has a long history dating back to Carl Ludwig Willdenow and Alexander von Humboldt. However, while the association between climate and the structure and diversity of vegetation has a long history, scientists have only recently begun to develop a more synthetic understanding of biomes based on the evolution of plant diversity, function, and community assembly. At the broadest scales, climate filters species based on their functional attributes, and the resulting functional differences in dominant vegetation among biomes are important to modeling the global carbon cycle and the functioning of the Earth system.
Activities must be guided by sound scientific principles, practical conservation tools, and clear priorities.
Pretorius, L. Brown, G. Bredenkamp and C. Van Huyssteen. Biodiversity - The Dynamic Balance of the Planet. This area is renowned for its distinct geological history, rich biodiversity, diverse ecosystems, and internationally recognized wetlands Figure 1. The KwaZulu-Natal Province has the second highest wetland surface area in South Africa [ 1 ], and the MCP itself contains a very rich collection of surface water bodies.
Enhanced shrub growth and expansion are widespread responses to climate warming in many arctic and alpine ecosystems. Warmer temperatures and shrub expansion could cause major changes in plant community structure, affecting both species composition and diversity. To improve our understanding of the ongoing changes in plant communities in alpine tundra, we studied interrelations among climate, shrub growth, shrub cover and plant diversity, using an elevation gradient as a proxy for climate conditions. Specifically, we analyzed growth of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We assessed the ramet age, ring width and shoot length of V. At higher elevation, ramets of V. Shoot length was positively related to shrub cover, but shrub cover did not show a direct relationship with elevation.
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Most plant communities consist of several or many species which compete for light, water, and nutrients. Species in a given community may be ranked by their relative success in competition; productivity seems to be the best measure of their success or importance in the community. Curves of decreasing productivity connect the few most important species the dominants with a larger number of species of intermediate importance whose number primarily determines the community's diversity or richness in species and a smaller number of rare species. These curves are of varied forms and are believed to express different patterns of competition and niche differentiation in communities. It is probably true of plants, as of animals, that no two species in a stable community occupy the same niche.
At some point in their history, most forests in the Mediterranean Basin have been subjected to intensive management or converted to agriculture land. Knowing how forest plant communities recovered after the abandonment of forest-management or agricultural practices including livestock grazing provides a basis for investigating how previous land management have affected plant species diversity and composition in forest ecosystems. We compared forest stands that differed both in land-use history and in successional stage. In addition, we evaluated the value of those stands for biodiversity conservation. The study revealed significant compositional differentiation among stands that was due to among-stand variations in the diversity namely, species richness and evenness of early-, intermediate-, and late-successional species. Historical land management has led to an increase in compositional divergences among forest stands and the loss of late-successional forest species. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Ecological dominance is the degree to which a taxon is more numerous than its competitors in an ecological community , or makes up more of the biomass.