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Steel vs Cast Iron.
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Metals have a combination of strength and plasticity that is not found in many other materials. What is the difference between cast iron and steel? The most notable difference between steel and cast iron is the carbon content. Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy without fracturing. Rubber is a tough material. Toughness is a combination of ductility and strength see below.
In materials science , quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties. A type of heat treating , quenching prevents undesired low-temperature processes, such as phase transformations, from occurring. It does this by reducing the window of time during which these undesired reactions are both thermodynamically favorable, and kinetically accessible; for instance, quenching can reduce the crystal grain size of both metallic and plastic materials, increasing their hardness. In metallurgy , quenching is most commonly used to harden steel by inducing a martensite transformation, where the steel must be rapidly cooled through its eutectoid point, the temperature at which austenite becomes unstable. In steel alloyed with metals such as nickel and manganese , the eutectoid temperature becomes much lower, but the kinetic barriers to phase transformation remain the same.
Cast iron , an alloy of iron that contains 2 to 4 percent carbon , along with varying amounts of silicon and manganese and traces of impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus. It is made by reducing iron ore in a blast furnace. The liquid iron is cast, or poured and hardened, into crude ingots called pigs, and the pigs are subsequently remelted along with scrap and alloying elements in cupola furnaces and recast into molds for producing a variety of products. The Chinese produced cast iron as early as the 6th century bc , and it was produced sporadically in Europe by the 14th century. It was introduced into England about ; the first ironworks in America were established on the James River, Virginia, in
Methods in iron Making Process 1. Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route 2. Direct Reduction Technique 3.
The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon C ranging from 1. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel.
Steel , alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon content ranges up to 2 percent with a higher carbon content, the material is defined as cast iron. In addition, the tools required to build and manufacture such articles are also made of steel. For a list of steel production by country, see below World steel production.
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