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Metal Cutting And Machine Tools By Pn Rao Pdf

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Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? PN Rao Vol-2 2e. Uploaded by Kuruba Sunil. Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Jan 06, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document.

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Search inside document. Ghansela Asst. General Manager—Production: B L Dogra Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed to be reliable, However, neither Tats McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information.

This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. Variety of Machine Tools 2 2.

Metal Cutting 5 Objectives 5 2. Reciprocating Machine Tools Objectives 6. Types of MilBag Machines witers 7. This chapter provides a summary of the major factors that need to be considered in metal cutting.

After completing the chapter, the reader will be able to understand the basic parameters in the metal cutting operation appreciate different types of chips formed in metal cutting, and their relevance in manufacturing calculate analytically the forces end other parameters associated with orthogonal cutting understand the importance of shear angle in metal cutting select the cutting tool material for a given application understand the temperatures developed in metal cutting, and the variables that control it understand tool wear and too!

It is therefore important to understand the metal cutting process in order to make the best use of it. Before the end of 19th century, some amount of work was done by people like Tresca, Thime, Maliock, etc. Butit was mostly a scattered work. The monumental work done by F.

Taylor in the last stages of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century has been, in fact, the starting point for rational thinking on the metal cutting process.

Later, a number of investigations have been carried out in understanding the metal cutting process, and using this knowledge tohelp improve the manufacturing operations involving metal cutting. In this chapter, we will study, in brief, the various understandings available from the metal cutting research work. Atypical cutting tool in a simplified form is shown in Fig. The important features to be observed are Rakeangle Itis the angle between the face of the tool, called the rake face, and the normal to the machining direction.

This angle specifies the ease with which a metal is cut. Higher the rake angle, better is the cutting and less are the cutting forces. Increasing the rake angie reduces the metal backup available at the tool rake face. This reduces the strength of the tool tip as well as the heat dissipation through the tool. Thus, there is amaximum limit to the rake angle, and is generally of the order of 15 degrees for high speed stee!

Itis possible to have rake angle as zero or negative, as shown in Fig. These are generally used in the case of highly brittle tool materials, such as carbides or diamond, for giving extra strength to the tool tip. Clearance angle This is the angle between the machined surface and the underside of the tool, called the flank face.

A very large clearance angle reduces the strength of the tool tip, and hence normally an angle of the order of 5 to 6 degrees is generally used. This is generally expressed in metres per second ms"'. Feed rate, f, may be defined as the small relative movement per cycle per revolution or per stroke of the cutting tool in a direction usually normal to the cutting speed direction.

Depth of cut, d, is the normal distance between the unmachined surface and the machined surface. The metal in front of the tool rake face gets immediately compressed, first elastically and then plastically.

This zone is traditionally called shear zone, in view of the fact, that the material inthe final form is removed by shear from the parent metal. The actual separation of the metal starts as a yielding or fracture, depending on the cutting conditions, starting from the cutting tool tip. Then, the deformed metal, called chip, flows over the tool rake face. If the friction between the tool rake face and the underside of the chip deformed material is considerable, then the chip gets further deformed, which is termed as secondary deformation.

The chip after sliding over the tool rake face is lifted away from the tool, and the resultant curvature of the chip is termed as chip curl. Plastic deformation can be caused by yielding, in which strained layers of material get displaced over other layers along the slip-planes, which coincide with the direction of maximum shear stress.

Piispanen presented an interesting mechanism to account for the deformation process taking place at the cutting edge. He considers the undeformed metal as a stack of cards, which will slide over one another as the wedge shaped tools move under these cards, as shown in Fig.

Though this idea is an oversimplified one, it, generally accounts for a number of features that are to be found in practice. A practical example is when paraffin is cut, block-wise slip is clearly evident. Manufacturing Technology ee 8 The chip in actual manufacturing practice is variable, both in size and shape. Study of chip is one of the most important things in metal cutting. As would be seen later. The chip formation in metal cutting can be broadly categorised into three type: Discontinuous chip Gi Continuous chip, and ii Continuous chip with BUE 2.

Discontinuous chips are easier from the chip- a Tear type b Shear type disposal viewpoint. However, the cutting force j becomes unstable with the variation coinciding with the fracturing cycle,as shown in Fig. However, in case of ductile materials, they cause poor surface finish and low tool life. Higher depths of cut large chip thickness , low cutting speeds, and small rake angles are likely to produce discontinuous chips. The continuous chip, which is like a ribbon flows Fig.

Continuous chip is possible because of the ductility of metal steel at high temperature generated due to cutting that flows along the shear plane instead of rupture. Thus, on a continuous chip, you do not see any notches. It can be assumed that each layer of metal flows along the slip plane till it is stopped by work hardening.

It also helps in having higher tool life and lower power consumption. To help in this direction, various forms of chip breakers have been developed, which are in the form of a step or groove in the tool rake face. The chip breakers allow the chips to be broken into small pieces so that they can be easily disposed of.

When such sizeable material piles up on the rake face, itacts as a cutting edge in place of the actual cutting edge, as shown in Fig 2.

This is termed as built-up edge BUE. By virtue of work hardening, Pultup-ecge BUE is harder than the parent work material. As the size of BUE grows larger, it becomes unstable and parts of it get removed while cutting. This causes finished surface to be rough. However, since the cutting is being carried by the BUE and not the actual tooltip, the life of the cutting tool Fig. In this way, BUE isnot harmful while rough machining.

The conditions that normally induce the formation of BUE are low cutting speed, high feed, and low rake angle. One of the prerequisites for the formation of BUEis the work hardenability of the workpiece material. Higher the work hardenability, rougher is the machined surface produced. This adhesion may be so severe that instead of the chip sliding over the tool face, considerable plastic flow and eventually rupture occur within the chip.

Further layers build up until a large nose of material projects from the cutting edge. The adhesion at the chip tool interface is very strong and different from the conventional adhesion characteristics of the material pair concerned.

The conditions of machining are most extreme than in most other deformation processes. There is a high compressive stress acting on the plastic zone which prevents rupture from occurring until the strain is well above the rupture value, such as in a tensile test.

The deformation is localised to an extremely small plastic zone. The strain rate is unusually high. Gil The chip material rubbing over the tool face is freshly formed from the body of the work material, and is ina chemically clean condition. This makes it more chemically active than the usual oxidised surfaces encountered in most sliding situations, a feature which increases the tendency for adhesion, and so gives a higher friction force.

One school of thought is, that the deformation zone is very thin and planar, as shown in Fig. The other schoo!

This is because the transition from undeformed material to deformed material to take place along a thin plane, the acceleration across the plane has to be infinity for the velocity to change instantaneously from cutting speed V,to V,..

Manufacturing Technology: Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, Volume 2

Manufacturing is the backbone of any industrialized nation. Manufacturing and technical staff in industry must know the various manufacturing processes, materials being processed, tools and equipments for manufacturing different components or products with optimal process. Manufacturing Processes By R. The book is intended for engineers of any specialization to present an overview of manufacturing process and the material used in it. The book would be useful as a core-course to B. The book is considered to be useful universally, specially in view of syllabus of. Groover As you Guys know that Mechanical Engineering is one of the tough streams in.

These books are used by students of top universities, institutes and colleges. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks. List of Books Collected. EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford buying books is our aim.

Manufacturing Technology

Publication date Topics mechanical. Collection opensource. Language English. Manufacturing Technology.

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PN Rao Vol-2 2e.pdf

These books are used by students of top universities, institutes and colleges. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

These books are used by students of top universities, institutes and colleges. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

Hence it is necessary to take proper guidance to score good marks. Vishal Verma Aug 29, Pramod Mahajan Aug 29, Anmol Goel Aug 31, Akash Sep 11, Shashank Bhardwaj Sep 15,

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Sample Grinder at Thomas Scientificredesigned batch mill grinds hard, brittle, soft and fibrous materials for volumes up to 50 ml Because. Manufacturing is the backbone of any industrialized nation. Manufacturing and technical staff in industry must know the various manufacturing processes, materials being processed, tools and equipments for manufacturing different components or products with optimal process. Manufacturing Processes By R. The book is intended for engineers of any specialization to present an overview of manufacturing process and the material used in it. The book would be useful as a core-course to B.

Manufacturing technology volume 2: Metal cutting and machine tools / P. N. Rao

You must have javascript enabled to view this website. Please change your browser preferences to enable javascript, and reload this page. Manufacturing Technology is going through major technological changes because of the revolutionary changes being brought in by the developments in the microelectronics. The availability of computers and then microprocessors have completely changed the machine tool scenario by bringing in the flexibility which was not possible through the conventional mechanisms.

Best Books for Manufacturing for Mechanical Engineering Exams

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Brad P. 18.05.2021 at 02:22

Volume 1 · Foundry, Forming and Welding · Volume 2 · Metal Cutting and Machine Tools · SS BHAVIKATTI BASIC CIVIL ENGINEERING BOOK Pdf.

Ciara D. 23.05.2021 at 09:21

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