File Name: ian rankin knots and crosses .zip
Now he's an Edinburgh cop who hides from his memories, misses promotions and ignores a series of crank letters.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Crime fiction was for a long time popularly and persistently conceived as a niche genre, self-contained, closed, and formulaic, "both self-referential, and albeit sometimes mockingly self-reverential […] It simply couldn't function unless its writers and readers had at least some knowledge about the [genre] in which they participate, the more the better" Gelder , Being thus characterized, it was relegated to a second-class status, that of a mere "subgenre of fiction, similar, for example, to romantic fiction, a sub-genre that is perhaps interesting but not truly significant in the same sense as conventional fiction" Evans , 1.
Yet, even a superficial look at contemporary cultural production shows that crime fiction and detective fiction have a pervasive presence in our historic moment. It has got an extremely wide and solid fan base, it has always been around and its popularity and centrality in the cultural domain since the 18th century has been amply demonstrated in the literature cf.
Our purpose here is therefore to reposition this second-class status, and to direct attention to the ways in which it has always been a peculiar and key mode of channelling cultural perceptions of, and imaginaries about, violence, transgression, sublimity, anxieties -and all instances of social pathology as well as the intricate relation between politics and power.
Whilst continuing to be formulaic, especially in its recent manifestations both in literary fiction and across converging media, it has become more and more conducive to generic subversion, transgression and hybridization.
It is the ability to adapt and to constantly reinvent itself, its ubiquity and its reliance on participation that makes crime fiction, as a genre as well as a mode, so powerful and capable of mobilizing audiences more than any other form of genre fiction. In fact, this strong presence is apparent in at least two senses. In the first, crime and detection have left the status of a niche genre behind, having been embraced by mainstream, serious fiction.
Thus, "far from being a somewhat sleazy black-sheep cousin belatedly admitted to the house of fiction by a side door, the crime story has some claim to have driven the main structural transformations of narrative for at least the last half-century" Priestman , 6 , and as such, "[s]ince crime fiction has become one of the principal forms of prose in the UK and the US, as well as many other European countries and Japan" Cuddon et al.
In fact, it has become so much a staple of "serious" literary fiction that Nicol, Pulham and McNulty , 4 In the second sense, crime and detection have become a pervasive influence in that they not only surpassed genre boundaries, but also those of media. Similarly, the genre's "mass mediation traverses comic strips, crime comics, and graphic novels" Rzepka , 7 , and "we find many […] [computer] games that use a detective theme or story" Veugen , 73 , and this list is by no means complete.
In fact, crime's hold on the public imagination is not restricted to fiction either, whatever the medium. Crime has also long been established as an area of research in converging areas of study, such as history, literature, culture, or politics, as a mode which successfully channels a number of social anxieties and ethical dilemmas both historically and about our present historic time when our sense of security has become eroded in relation to our identities Palatinus Thus, as crime and detection have grown beyond a literary genre to constitute a mode and a style that has a spectral presence in the collective cultural consciousness Palatinus , the goal of this volume is to inspect their representations and figurations across various converging media.
This body of essays does not only investigate representations of the detective, the criminal and the victim from the point of view of psychology or social criticism, but also the ways crime, and the pertaining critical practice both on social and academic levels, has become an unavoidable commodity. Although all papers in this volume are interdisciplinary in terms of the questions they pose or attempt to answer, for practical reasons they were divided into two sections based on which area is accentuated in them.
As could be expected, literature is an abundant source of criminals and criminologists, thus the first section is dedicated to crime and detection in literature. The second part, then, deals with crime's representation in other media, be it film, television series, computer games, digital interfaces or fan groups. This division is, nevertheless, purely formal, as a whole range of overarching concerns and topics will show.
The most recurring issue that the contributors attempt to tackle is the question of genre, which, in itself, proves that detective or crime fiction assumes manifold forms. It further contributes to the issue of genre through its discussion of forensic crime stories' resemblance to and borrowing from other voyeuristic genres, including pornography. Finally, Elke Weissmann's text, another one discussing crime's representation in a computer game, tackles both crime narrative's peculiar combination with the game genre of the treasure hunt, as well as hints on CSI's indebtedness to the horror genre, during her discussion of forms and limitations of audience participation in CSI: Crime City.
Another frequently repeated issue in the volume is the connection of crime to social and political structures and institutions. All of these three contributors also see the role of a writer of such novels in raising public awareness and being socially and politically engaged.
The topic of crime's social and political aspects also figures in the discussions of the non-literary chapters, although differently. Many contributions share an expressly theoretical focus. Thus, as the above paragraphs have shown, the present volume is more than a collection of loosely related chapters on crime and detection. It is both a venture in showing the centrality of the representation of crime in modern culture, as well as a heavily structured text focusing on issues of genre, social and political aspects of the culture of crime, and media-specific problems of its representation.
This is how the author Ian Rankin recalls his initial reaction after the publication of what was to become the first in a series comprising so far nineteen novels centred at the character of detective John Rebus. Drawing on the hard-boiled American noir crime writing rather than the genteel English murder mystery subgenre, tartan noir typically achieves greater psychological depth and complexity of characterization, thus sharing many affinities with modern Scandinavian detective fiction Wanner , Aaron Kelly explains the implications of the term tartan noir: "The moniker Tartan Noir can be slyly evocative.
A noir tartan, if such a thing were possible, encourages us to consider that patterns exist beneath an absolute, inscrutable darkness. This premise goes right to the heart of crime fiction. The genre has always sought to uncover the hidden connections, meanings or designs of the everyday" , xiii. Robert Louis Stevenson's masterpiece novella The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde counts among the core Scottish works of fiction that continue to exercise a lasting influence on the national imagination.
Stevenson's story revolves around the motif of duality in that it examines the classic opposition of the good and the evil, dealing also with the contrasts between the public and the private identity, between appearance and authenticity, between the surface and under-the-surface and other such dichotomies.
The novella depicts the plight of the highly regarded and well-liked Doctor Henry Jekyll, a morally upright man who attempts by scientific methods to separate virtue and vice in his character.
He succeedsand fails in creating his double, Mr Edward Hyde, an embodiment of pure evil that swiftly escalates far beyond what began as hardly worse than undignified indulgences and guilty pleasures. Initially, Jekyll can transform into Hyde and back at his will by swallowing a potion, and he takes deliberate delight in wreaking havoc in the streets at night in his disguise as another person.
However, the more space Jekyll allows his formerly suppressed dark side to develop, the more vicious it grows. Jekyll realizes the error he made when he "severed in [him]self those provinces of good and ill which divide and compound man's dual nature," and unable to return to his former complete, if imperfect self, he takes his life Stevenson [ Stevenson [ ] Edinburgh-born Stevenson chose to set Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in London, but in a London modelled on his native city, which he describes in these terms: "Half a capital and half a country town, the whole city leads a double existence; it has long trances of the one and flashes of the other, […] it is half alive and half a monumental marble"  , A hundred years later, Ian Rankin sees Edinburgh as still inherently split between warring contradictions and outright incompatible opposites.
Rankin, who studied at Edinburgh University, recalls in an interview his impression of the "Jekyll and Hyde nature to the city, or the kind of structural way it's broken up into New Town and Old Town, where the New Town was designed to be rational and geometric because the Old Town's chaotic.
That's kind of two sides to the human nature, seems to me the organized and the sort of feral" Sloma , He employs the city not merely as an arbitrary setting, rather Edinburgh features here as an integral part of the thematic structure of the novel so that it eventually rises to the status of a character on its own standing.
The dual nature of Edinburgh is mirrored in the novel's protagonist, Detective Sergeant John Rebus, whose ambivalent characterization extends to the point when he becomes a suspect in the case that he investigates. The crime of the novel consists of a string of kidnappings and murders by strangling of four pre-teenage girls with no apparent motive, sex crime having been excluded early in the process of investigation. Running parallel are two subplot lines: one of them focuses on anonymous cryptic messages that Rebus starts receiving at the same time as the so-called Edinburgh Strangler appears; the other follows Rebus's brother Michael's involvement in organized drug crime.
Only when the last girl, Detective Rebus's daughter Sammy, is kidnapped, does Rebus realize that from the beginning it was himself who was targeted and this by his former fellow Special Air Service trainee, Gordon Reeve, seeking a personal vendetta. The outcome of the Strangler case, together with Michael confessing his illegal activities to the unsuspecting Rebus, startles the protagonist with the revelation that the evil in all forms comes closer than even a criminal detective could anticipate.
A clash of contesting concepts has been described as an intrinsic feature of the Scottish psyche by G. Gregory Smith, who coined the phrase Caledonian antisyzygy in reference to "the very combination of opposites," "the contrasts which the Scot shows at every turn" and which are hence projected in the nation's literature ,4.
Smith's post-First-World-War diagnosis of the double Scottish character might seem reductionist and dated in the increasingly globalized and diversified era after postmodernism. Indeed, in a interview, Rankin feels urged to defend his unfashionable stance:I'm still obsessed by the idea-and I know that a lot of critics think it is a simplistic one-of the Edinburgh character and the Scottish character being a Jekyll-and-Hyde thing.
I do think that we all have this darker side, I do think there is always more than one side to use, and I know damn fine that the side I present to the world is not the same Ian Rankin who sits down to write the books. Furthermore, instead of insisting on the sheer blackness of the villain's world and the untainted whiteness of the detective's territory, he negotiates in the grey in-between zone where the criminal and the policeman contend. The result is a surprisingly plastic narrative and well-rounded main character that convey the effect of life-like plurality rather than flat, straightforward duality.
Kirsten Sandrock notices Rebus's "aversion to all forms of hierarchies, including the ones within his own police force," and comments that "he may be part of the legal authority of the police, but he simultaneously challenges the authorities he works for" , Rebus's dissenting attitude to official systems of power backs up the suspicion rising in the progress of the novel that he might be the perpetrator of the very crime that he ostentatiously looks to clarify.
Moreover, it becomes soon obvious that the heavy-drinking and tough-talking Rebus himself possesses the capacity for evil, whether enacted as a minor misdemeanour or a grave offence. Early in the book, Rebus passes a grocery shop as he is returning from work in the early hours of the morning and casually steals some rolls from supply boxes left unattended on the pavement. On second thought, he stealthily returns and helps himself also to a pint of milk, while he remarks that the shop owner has complained to him about petty thefts, but that there is not much to be done.
Besides the bleakly humorous grocery scene, Rebus is shown later in the novel as possessed by a sudden murderous impulse and attempting to strangle a random female acquaintance before breaking down and coming to consciousness in hospital.
The violent incident, portrayed in a surrealistic manner, could be a figment of Rebus's imagination induced by overwork and stress related to the Strangler case, but no definite interpretation is offered. Aside from strangulation as modus operandi, what bears a major significance here is the occasion of the act. Rebus assaults the woman as they are about to make love, after she seduced him and he failed to reject her, though he found her unattractive, even repelling: "He felt the first wave of that absolute repulsion hit him in the stomach like a truncheon, and his hands slid around the hanging, yielding throat beneath him.
The moans were inhuman now, cat-like, keening. His hands pushed a little, the fingers finding their own purchase against skin and sheet" Rankin  , The confusion of desire and disgust as derived from the fundamental Freudian conflict of eros and thanatos, love drive and death drive, reappears in another controversial scene. This involves Rebus and his co-worker Jack Morton studying records of former sex offenders in search for possible suspects and presents a revealing insight into Rebus's divided nature:Rebus's thoughts evidence his self-consciousness regarding the potential of evil lurking in himself and in any other person, but they equally illustrate his awareness of the principles of civilized society that need to be upheld in order to keep the evil in check.
Rebus has no steady partner either in his private or in his professional life; he is divorced from his wife Rhona and manifests little devotion to his sometime lover and colleague, Detective Inspector Gill Templer, as follows also from his willingness to engage in casual sex with another woman.
A withdrawn and deeply private person, he appears to shrink from commitment lest it should be used to his disadvantage, which turns out to be the case twice: when his daughter is abducted and when his brother is exposed as a criminal. Ironically, the key to hunting down the Strangler and rescuing Rebus's daughter lies in the detective's repressed memories of his former emotional attachment and loyalty to another human being-or betrayal of loyalty.
Only under hypnosis performed on Rebus by his brother, professional hypnotist, does he remember details of the harsh training he underwent as a Special Air Service recruit. One of the trials testing the candidates' suitability consisted in Rebus and Reeve being locked together in a cell for an indefinite amount of time and subjected to psychological torture. Rebus succeeded in the excruciating test but was devastated inasmuch that he left the forces at his own request, while Reeve failed and blamed Rebus for supposedly abandoning him.
Years later, Reeve orchestrates his revenge: "The past contaminates the present," Gill Plain explains, "leading the detective to be read as suspect by those who do not recognise that his obsession with the victims of crime is not a sign of guilt but rather a sentimental masochism articulating the impotence of the individual in the face of evil and indifference" , The novel features a remarkable minor character, the investigative journalist Jim Stevens, who may not exactly act as the detective's sidekick in the conventional Sherlock-and-Watson sense, who nevertheless receives a significant space in the book as he discovers Michael Rebus's illegitimate activities and tracks both Rebus brothers to confirm-or, as it happens, rule out-their criminal conspiracy.
The disgruntled Stevens shares a number of affinities with Rebus, including his preference for field work, his habit of working alone and also his deeply-rooted bond to Edinburgh: "It was said that he had turned down jobs with London papers, just because he liked to live in Edinburgh. And what he liked best about his job was the opportunity it gave him to uncover the city's murkier depths, the crime, the corruption, the gangs and the drugs" Rankin  , Like Rebus, also Stevens inhabits a self-imposed emotional void in order to prevent personal alliances from affecting his judgement.
The reporter's approach arguably contributes to his efficiency, and he compulsively pursues his story, even if "the ground he walked upon was always likely to fall away beneath his feet, letting him slip into Leith docks of a dark and silent morning, finding him trussed and gagged in some motorway ditch outside Perth. He didn't mind all that. It was no more than a passing thought" Rankin  , Similarly, Rebus fails to establish any emotional connection with his environment, such as when he contemplates the sentimentally charged statue of Greyfriars Bobby, a favourite sight in Edinburgh which commemorates the faithful terrier who allegedly guarded the grave of his deceased master for fourteen years until its own death: "He had stared long and hard at the statue of the small dog, and had felt nothing.
He had read of Covenanters, of Deacon Brodie, of public executions on the High Street, wondering what kind of city this was, and what kind of country" Rankin  , Rebus rightly alludes to the less than glamorous history of Edinburgh, among whose most enduringly popular criminals are the eighteenth-century Deacon Brodie, a cabinetmaker by day and burglar by night, and Burke and Hare, early nineteenth-century body snatchers turned murderers who traded with cadavers for anatomy lectures.
Perversely, the tourist metropolis commodifies and profits even from the grimmest aspects of its history, albeit sold in a suitably sanitized form. For instance, the Old Town's main thoroughfare, Royal Mile, prides a traditional restaurant called Deacon Brodie's Tavern, and sitting appropriately on the border between the Old and the New Town, there is the Edinburgh Dungeon, a sensational attraction whose performers routinely re-enact the city's criminal past.
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It is the first of the Inspector Rebus novels. It was written while Rankin was a postgraduate student at the University of Edinburgh. In the introduction to this novel, Rankin states that Rebus lives directly opposite the window in Marchmont that he looked out of while writing the book. Edinburgh has been shocked by the abduction and subsequent strangling of two young girls. Journalist Jim Stevens runs his own investigation, and has uncovered Michael Rebus 's drug dealing.
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Well I'm goin' to California where they sleep out every night yeah I'm goin' to California where they sleep out every night I'm leaving you mama cause you know you don't treat me right. Let me tell you something mama that you don't know Let me tell Ian Rankin was known as one of the best authors in this world, many best books was written and always become popular books.
The very first Rebus novel from the No. I mean, you never think of that sort of thing happening in Edinburgh, do you?
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In the pause that followed, then plunks Molina who hit the home run earlier right in the ass. The plane had been co-owned by Reza and three other lawyers, she realized instantly. Here it was where Rose had enacted the fable about the beginning of all stories on their first night in Shadowland. There was nothing I could do to trick this guy. He could not be transferred because the stipulations of his continued service required monthly visits to the National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda. Spitting dirt, formerly of the royal coroners. Weirdly, almost at the base of his neck.
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Поравнявшись с задним бампером, он взял немного правее. Ему была видна задняя дверца: как это принято в Севилье, она оставалась открытой - экономичный способ кондиционирования. Все внимание Беккера сосредоточилось на открытой двери, и он забыл о жгучей боли в ногах.
Глаза немца расширились. - Was tust du. Что вы делаете. Беккер понял, что перегнул палку.
Танкадо прижал изуродованную руку к груди с выражением недоумения и ужаса на лице. - Вы можете заметить, - продолжал Смит, - что взгляд его устремлен. Он ни разу не посмотрел по сторонам. - Это так важно? - полувопросительно произнес Джабба. - Очень важно, - сказал Смит.
Что. - Деление на ноль, - сказала она, пробегая глазами остальные данные. - Средняя цена определяется как дробь - общая стоимость, деленная на число расшифровок.
В нашем распоряжении будет целых два дня. - Но я уже забронировала номер, обиженно сказала Сьюзан.
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Probably a midlevel type who could be trusted with just enough responsibility to carry out this job, but I doubt if he had anything to do with the planning.