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Remote Sensing From Air And Space Pdf

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Air & Space Law

Data sets for each indicator will be shared publicly upon publication of complementary technical journal articles describing the methods for each one. This Commentary shares our experience and lessons learned.

Together, the team developed methods to track wildfires, dust storms, pollen counts, urban green space, nitrogen dioxide concentrations and asthma burdens, tropospheric ozone concentrations, and urban particulate matter mortality. Participatory knowledge production can lead to more actionable information but requires time, flexibility, and continuous engagement.

Ground measurements are still needed for ground truthing, and sustained collaboration over time remains a challenge. Participatory knowledge production can lead to more useful information for stakeholders but requires continuous engagement and flexibility. Ground measurements are still needed, and sustained collaboration between the researchers and stakeholders over time remains a challenge. Each iteration of these efforts expands and builds upon the data and indicators used for tracking pollution and, in the case of the Lancet Countdown, the links between health and climate change.

Incorporating new exposures and indicators also improves the validity of the studies' estimates. Ground monitors are sparsely located, even in countries with extensive monitoring networks, and remain nonexistent throughout much of the world Martin et al.

Remote sensing measurements are also consistent across time and space, whereas ground monitoring protocols and instruments change over time and are not harmonized across countries. Important limitations remain, such as in algorithms used to derive surface conditions from atmospheric column measurements. However, recent and forthcoming advances are rapidly narrowing these uncertainties.

We expect further expansion of satellite capabilities for air pollution and climate tracking through forthcoming launches focused specifically on air quality e.

While the scope and scale of spaceborne Earth observations increasingly matches the needs of global health assessments, developing, analyzing, and interpreting these data sets for environmental and public health surveillance require technical expertise.

A key challenge is that scientists lending their expertise to produce and interpret relevant data sets often do so on a volunteer basis, limiting their ability to devote the time and effort needed to transition scientific research into actionable environmental and public health knowledge.

Notably, it was one of the first projects supported by the NASA Applied Sciences Division to carry out applied research on air pollution and climate change at the global scale. The purpose of this Commentary is to demonstrate the broad range of air quality and climate change tracking uses for satellite remote sensing data, share the experience of the NASA HAQAST Indicators Tiger Team, and relay lessons learned for harnessing the strengths of diverse teams to address complex societal challenges.

Here we briefly summarize the Tiger Team's work for each of the air quality and climate change indicators. The indicators are grouped by whether they are primarily used as a climate change indicator or as an air quality indicator, though air pollution and climate change are highly interrelated e.

For each topic, we describe the motivation for addressing the topic through the Tiger Team, methods used to leverage satellites or information from other geoscientific sources e. This Commentary complements more detailed technical articles for each indicator; thus, methods are only briefly summarized here.

We did not seek to address development of global and country scale PM 2. The higher temperature, changing precipitation patterns, and decreasing soil moisture related to climate change increase the likelihood of wildfires in many parts of the world Liu et al. In addition to property damage and firefighting expenses, wildfires have substantial adverse health impacts either directly from burns, injuries, and mortality or indirectly via smoke inhalation on morbidity and mortality from acute and chronic respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes Black et al.

Our wildfire indicator was introduced in the Lancet Countdown report, filling an important gap in the collaboration's tracking capacity. Going forward, we are working with the Lancet Countdown and stakeholders to further refine and improve this indicator for the report. This work provides an example of our ability to make the leap from research into practice within a short time frame.

The percentage contributions of dust to surface PM 2. Health effects associated with dust exposure include increased nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality, respiratory diseases, and cardiopulmonary diseases Crooks et al. Desert dust has also been associated with infectious diseases such as coccidioidomycosis valley fever in the southwestern United States Tong et al.

Approximately , premature deaths have been attributed to dust exposure annually Giannadaki et al. The Indicators Tiger Team adopted a simple indicator, dust storms frequency, to describe the changes in the locations and numbers of dust storms in the United States. The dust data are now being used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC and southwestern states as part of their surveillance of valley fever. Pollen counts are an indicator of exposure that has received less attention than other airborne exposures e.

As pollen counts are influenced by climate change in several ways Ziska et al. The Tiger Team focused on developing gridded estimates of daily pollen counts for several allergenic pollen taxa in the contiguous United States for the last decade, with the plan to develop similar estimates for other regions of the world pending availability of pollen data for calibrating remotely sensed observations.

We are undertaking new efforts to partner with aerobiologists around the world to gather additional pollen data to validate regional models. Green space, including street trees, parks, and gardens, provides multiple climate and health benefits Frumkin et al. The goal of this effort was to create an indicator that would track green space quantity over time in global cities. In our initial work, we obtained MODIS data for global urban areas larger than 1 million obtained from the Global Human Settlement program of the European Commission quarterly for Three exposure metrics were calculated for each city: max NDVI the average greenness value based on the month of maximum exposure ; annual average NDVI updated based on changes in seasonal NDVI ; and weighted average greenness values based on population size.

Here, the indicator has been developed in response to strong demand from health policymakers and the climate change and health community, both of which are interested in tracking recent and future changes in urban green space and eventually, the adaptation and health cobenefits of these shifts.

Our main stakeholder has been the Lancet Countdown. We expect to include the indicator in the Lancet Countdown report. We are now in the process of expanding estimation of the indicator from the urban areas to more years and a larger and more representative set of global cities. NO 2 is a largely urban pollutant that is highly correlated with population and vehicle traffic. NO 2 differs from ozone and PM 2.

An important role of the Tiger Team was to convey to the GBD Study and the State of Global Air the strengths and weaknesses of global NO 2 concentration estimates generated by integrating satellite observations with chemical transport models or with land use regression models. A new idea that arose during the course of the Tiger Team was to explore whether effects of urban transportation emission reduction policies can be seen from space.

In cities, private and public transportation are prominent sources of NO x emissions. Similar analyses may be extended to past and current transportation policy reforms in other cities. This study demonstrates the utility of satellite data for informing air quality, transportation, and public health policy considerations by local governments. Through this Tiger Team, we transferred data and knowledge about ozone concentrations generated by integrating multiple models and in situ measurements.

While recent work has demonstrated potential to use satellite remote sensing to retrieve lower tropospheric ozone directly over regions where boundary layer concentrations are sufficiently high Shen et al. With HAQAST support, we improved estimates of global ozone concentrations by statistically fusing surface ozone observations with output from multiple global atmospheric models, to support the GBD and GBD studies. Whereas previous studies have often used multimodel averages for similar efforts, for GBD , we developed methods of combining multiple atmospheric models based on their performance in matching observations in several world regions Chang et al.

These methods were then improved for the forthcoming GBD We used new ozone observations including from China and more model results that extended beyond We also used the Bayesian Maximum Entropy method Christakos et al. We delivered ozone concentrations at 0. This data set is available for other uses, such as for risk assessments or epidemiologic studies of ozone health effects.

Through the Tiger Team, we also worked to improve estimates of ozone concentrations and trends by assimilating satellite observations globally. Compared to surface measurements, simulations based on assimilation of the NASA product lead to smaller bias and error for all ozone metrics examined. This activity remains under development and in the future can improve surface ozone concentration estimates for the GBD. In addition to improving ozone concentrations, the Tiger Team used satellite observations to advance understanding of ozone chemistry regimes globally, which has implications for designing policy measures for ozone abatement.

Ozone is produced from photochemical reactions involving its precursors: nitrogen oxides NO x and volatile organic compounds VOCs. For over two decades, satellite instruments have provided continuous global observations of tropospheric column NO 2 and formaldehyde HCHO , which can serve as indicators for NO x and VOCs, respectively.

This recent work provides added evidence that ozone formation has become more sensitive to NO x emissions over major cities such as New York, Chicago, London, Beijing, and Seoul, as NO x emission controls have been implemented Jin et al. These results imply that NO x emission controls will reduce ozone more now than they would have in the past. Urban PM 2. We therefore developed the first estimates of urban PM 2. We used these concentration estimates to generate PM 2.

We made these urban PM 2. C40 Cities also used our urban PM 2. The Lancet Countdown is also incorporating our wildfire and green space estimates in future iterations. The project helped facilitate the development of new methods for estimating pollen exposure worldwide, dust storm frequency, and global ozone concentrations Chang et al.

The Tiger Team also advanced the field in less tangible yet highly influential ways. We accelerated capacity building among the stakeholders to understand and utilize satellite remote sensing products, helping to broaden the acceptability of satellite remote sensing measurements for global and regional air quality management and public health applications.

They will also inform mitigation efforts at multiple scales, including by intergovernmental organizations, national governments, and municipal governments. First, building understanding between the researcher capabilities and stakeholder needs takes time and effort. This messy, heterogeneously organized process of coproducing knowledge with stakeholders has been documented in the literature on actionable science and its application to other societal problems Kirchhoff et al.

Our experience provides further evidence that participatory knowledge production can lead to more relevant, actionable, and useful information for stakeholders but requires the devotion of time and attention from both scientific researchers and stakeholders to be effective. New priorities arise as stakeholder needs evolve and new synergies emerge when there are engagements across a wide range of stakeholders and teams.

The organization of HAQAST around responding quickly to stakeholder needs enables researchers to pivot and form innovative smaller subset teams of individuals with the expertise needed to address the problem.

Third, our efforts to transfer mature data sets to end users, to further develop more nascent indicators, and to generate ideas for future indicators in parallel allowed us to advance our mission in the near term while also putting in place the building blocks for new indicators to be included in the long term.

Engaging with stakeholders is valuable at each stage of data development to ensure that methods and results are compatible with user needs. Fourth, sustained collaboration between the researchers and stakeholders after the extramural support ends remains a challenge.

Several stakeholders follow an iterative process with reports published annually and continue to rely on external scientists to contribute effort and expertise toward providing and interpreting updated data sets. Funding for these annual reports supports the synthesis required for their production, but not the data collection and analysis required for exposure assessment.

Ground measurements are needed to allow us to take advantage of remotely sensed variables and use these observations to generate global estimates of environmental exposures and their associations with health outcomes.

First, this collaboration will support international efforts to mitigate air pollution and climate change, which span national boundaries and require intergovernmental action to address. By producing research at the global scale and working with international teams to track air pollution and climate change indicators, we help move nations further toward reducing emissions, which will benefit public health both globally and in the United States.

Working with and learning from international teams also improves methods and tools developed in the United States, which can be applied to support reducing U. Beyond advances to scientific methods and tools, building relationships and collaborations that span national boundaries further enhances U. There are thus many ways that U. Satellite remote sensing has transformed our ability to track the world's progress in mitigating global air pollution and climate change Cromar et al.

With these satellite sensors, along with other advances in existing and new technologies e. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to this study.

ARSET - Satellite Remote Sensing of Air Quality

Chapter 1 Introduction to Remote Sensing 1. Chapter 2 Electromagnetic Basics 2. Chapter 3 Optical Imaging 3. Chapter 4 Optical Satellite Systems 4. Chapter 5 Orbital Mechanics Interlude 5.

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus is in contrast to on-site observation. The term is applied especially to acquiring information about the Earth. Remote sensing is used in numerous fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth science disciplines for example, hydrology, ecology , meteorology, oceanography, glaciology, geology ; it also has military, intelligence, commercial, economic, planning, and humanitarian applications, among others. In current usage, the term "remote sensing" generally refers to the use of satellite or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth. It includes the surface and the atmosphere and oceans , based on propagated signals e. It may be split into "active" remote sensing when a signal is emitted by a satellite or aircraft to the object and its reflection detected by the sensor and "passive" remote sensing when the reflection of sunlight is detected by the sensor.

Remote sensing

This text is designed to meet the needs of students interested in remote sensing as a tool for the study of military and intelligence problems. It focuses on the technology of remote sensing, both for students who will be working in systems acquisition offices and for those who might eventually need to be "informed consumers" of the products derived from remote sensing systems. I hope it will also be useful for those who eventually work in this field. Here in the second edition, the book maintains, as much as possible, a focus on the physics of remote sensing. As a physicist, I'm more interested in the technology of acquiring data than the final applications.

Geo-hazard emergency response is a disaster prevention and reduction action that multi-factorial, time-critical, task-intensive and socially significant. In order to improve the rationalization and standardization of space-air-ground remote sensing collaborative observation in geo-hazard emergency response, this paper comprehensively analyzes the technical resources of remote sensing sensors and the emergency service system, and establishes a database of technical and service evaluation indexes using MySQL. A method is proposed to evaluate and calculate the cooperative observation effectiveness in a specific remote sensing cooperative environment by combining TOPSIS and RSR. For the evaluation of remote sensing cooperative service capability in geo-hazard emergency response, taking earthquake as an example, establishing a remote sensing cooperative earthquake emergency response service chain, and designing a Bayesian network evaluation model. Through the evaluation of observation efficiency and service capability, the operation and task completion of remote sensing collaborative technology in geo-hazard emergency response can be effectively grasped and a basis for decision making can be provided for space-air-ground remote sensing collaborative work.

Search this site. A Pilgrimage to Palestine, Egypt, and Syria. All about Australia PDF.

This book will guide you in the use of remote sensing for military and intelligence gathering applications. It is a must read for students working on systems acquisition or for anyone interested in the products derived from remote sensing systems.

Все эти десять лет, в штиль и в бурю, он вел ее за. Уверенно и неуклонно. Не сбиваясь с курса.

ARSET - Satellite Remote Sensing of Air Quality

Все сгрудились вокруг нее и прочитали текст: …распространено заблуждение, будто на Нагасаки была сброшена плутониевая бомба. На самом деле в ней использовался уран, как и в ее сестрице, сброшенной на Хиросиму. - Но… - Сьюзан еле обрела дар речи.  - Если оба элемента - уран, то как мы найдем различие между .

Satellites and sensors

Похоже, нужно было проанализировать политический фон, на котором разворачивались эти события, сравнить их и перевести это сопоставление в магическое число… и все это за пять минут. ГЛАВА 124 - Атаке подвергся последний щит.

1 Comments

Clementine R. 16.05.2021 at 00:27

Data sets for each indicator will be shared publicly upon publication of complementary technical journal articles describing the methods for each one.

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