main types of batteries and their working pdf Thursday, May 13, 2021 9:05:22 AM

Main Types Of Batteries And Their Working Pdf

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The basis for a battery operation is the exchange of electrons between two chemical reactions, an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction.

Batteries power the modern world. Learn how to recognize the different types you may encounter, as well as safety tips, and their recycling process. These are the most common types of batteries powering devices you use everyday.

Most plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles use lithium-ion batteries like these. Lithium-ion batteries are currently used in most portable consumer electronics such as cell phones and laptops because of their high energy per unit mass relative to other electrical energy storage systems. They also have a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge.

Batteries – Types & working

A battery is a collection of one or more cells that go under chemical reactions to create the flow of electrons within a circuit. There is lot of research and advancement going on in battery technology, and as a result, breakthrough technologies are being experienced and used around the world currently.

Batteries came into play due to the need to store generated electrical energy. As much as a good amount of energy was being generated, it was important to store the energy so it can be used when generation is down or when there is a need to power standalone devices which cannot be kept tethered to the supply from the mains. The anode is a negative electrode that produces electrons to the external circuit to which the battery is connected. When batteries are connected, an electron build-up is initiated at the anode which causes a potential difference between the two electrodes.

The electrons naturally then try to redistribute themselves, this is prevented by the electrolyte, so when an electrical circuit is connected, it provides a clear path for the electrons to move from the anode to the cathode thereby powering the circuit to which it is connected.

Batteries generally can be classified into different categories and types, ranging from chemical composition, size, form factor and use cases, but under all of these are two major battery types;.

Primary batteries are batteries that cannot be recharged once depleted. Primary batteries are made of electrochemical cells whose electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed. Primary batteries exist in different forms ranging from coin cells to AA batteries. They are commonly used in standalone applications where charging is impractical or impossible. A good example of which is in military grade devices and battery powered equipment.

It will be impractical to use rechargeable batteries as recharging a battery will be the last thing in the mind of the soldiers. Primary batteries always have high specific energy and the systems in which they are used are always designed to consume low amount of power to enable the battery last as long as possible. Some other examples of devices using primary batteries include ; Pace makers, Animal trackers, Wrist watches, remote controls and children toys to mention a few.

The most popular type of primary batteries are alkaline batteries. They have a high specific energy and are environmentally friendly, cost-effective and do not leak even when fully discharged. They can be stored for several years, have a good safety record and can be carried on an aircraft without being subject to UN Transport and other regulations.

The only downside to alkaline batteries is the low load current, which limits its use to devices with low current requirements like remote controls, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. Secondary batteries are batteries with electrochemical cells whose chemical reactions can be reversed by applying a certain voltage to the battery in the reversed direction.

Also referred to as rechargeable batteries , secondary cells unlike primary cells can be recharged after the energy on the battery has been used up. They are typically used in high drain applications and other scenarios where it will be either too expensive or impracticable to use single charge batteries.

Small capacity secondary batteries are used to power portable electronic devices like mobile phones , and other gadgets and appliances while heavy-duty batteries are used in powering diverse electric vehicles and other high drain applications like load levelling in electricity generation. They are also used as standalone power sources alongside Inverters to supply electricity. Although the initial cost of acquiring rechargeable batteries is always a whole lot higher than that of primary batteries but they are the most cost-effective over the long-term.

Secondary batteries can be further classified into several other types based on their chemistry. This is very important because the chemistry determines some of the attributes of the battery including its specific energy, cycle life, shelf life, and price to mention a few.

The following are the different types of rechargeable batteries that are commonly used. Ni-Cd batteries excel at maintaining voltage and holding charge when not in use. In comparison with other types of rechargeable cells, Ni-Cd batteries offer good life cycle and performance at low temperatures with a fair capacity but their most significant advantage will be their ability to deliver their full rated capacity at high discharge rates.

They are available in different sizes including the sizes used for alkaline batteries, AAA to D. Ni-Cd cells are used individual or assembled in packs of two or more cells. The small packs are used in portable devices, electronics and toys while the bigger ones find application in aircraft starting batteries, Electric vehicles and standby power supply. NiMH batteries find application in high drain devices because of their high capacity and energy density.

Below are some of the properties of batteries based on the Nickel-metal hydride chemistry;. Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries. There are many different types of Lithium batteries , but among all the lithium-ion batteries are the most commonly used. You can find these lithium batteries being used in different forms popularly among electric vehicles and other portable gadgets. If you are curious to know more about batteries used in Electric vehicles, you can check out this article on Electric Vehicle Batteries.

They are found in different portable appliances including mobile phones, smart devices and several other battery appliances used at home.

They also find applications in aerospace and military applications due to their lightweight nature. Their chemistry alongside performance and cost vary across different use cases, for example, Li-ion batteries used in handheld electronic devices are usually based on lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO 2 which provides high energy density and low safety risks when damaged while Li-ion batteries based on Lithium iron phosphate which offer a lower energy density are safer due to a reduced likelihood of unfortunate events happening are widely used in powering electric tools and medical equipment.

Lithium-ion batteries offer the best performance to weight ratio with the lithium sulphur battery offering the highest ratio. Lead-acid batteries are a low-cost reliable power workhorse used in heavy-duty applications. Lead-acid batteries have very low energy to volume and energy to weight ratios but it has a relatively large power to weight ratio and as a result, can supply huge surge currents when needed.

These attributes alongside its low cost make these batteries attractive for use in several high current applications like powering automobile starter motors and for storage in backup power supplies. You can also check out the article on Lead Acid Battery working if you want to know more about the different types of Lead-acid batteries, its construction and applications. Each of these batteries has its area of best fit and the image below is to help choose between them.

One of the main problems hindering technology revolutions like IoT is power, battery life affects the successful deployment of devices that require long battery life and even though several power management techniques are being adopted to make the battery last longer, a compatible battery must still be selected to achieve the desired outcome. Below are some factors to consider when selecting the right type of battery for your project.

This determines how long your device stays on before it needs a recharge. Power Density: Maximum rate of energy discharge per unit mass or volume. Low power: laptop, i-pod. High power: power tools. Safety : It is important to consider the temperature at which the device you are building will work.

At high temperatures, certain battery components will breakdown and can undergo exothermic reactions. High temperatures generally reduces the performance of most batteries. Life cycle durability: The stability of energy density and power density of a battery with repeated cycling charging and discharging is needed for the long battery life required by most applications.

Cost: Cost is an important part of any engineering decisions you will be making. It is important that the cost of your battery choice is commensurate with its performance and will not increase the overall cost of the project abnormally. Battery cells are usually made up of three main components; The Anode Negative Electrode The Cathode Positive Electrode The electrolytes The anode is a negative electrode that produces electrons to the external circuit to which the battery is connected.

Primary Batteries Primary batteries are batteries that cannot be recharged once depleted. Secondary Batteries Secondary batteries are batteries with electrochemical cells whose chemical reactions can be reversed by applying a certain voltage to the battery in the reversed direction.

Some of the properties of Nickel-Cadmium batteries are listed below. Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries. Lead-Acid Batteries Lead-acid batteries are a low-cost reliable power workhorse used in heavy-duty applications. Selecting the right battery for your application One of the main problems hindering technology revolutions like IoT is power, battery life affects the successful deployment of devices that require long battery life and even though several power management techniques are being adopted to make the battery last longer, a compatible battery must still be selected to achieve the desired outcome.

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Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Classification of Cells or Batteries. Electrochemical batteries are classified into 4 broad categories. A primary cell or battery is one that cannot easily be recharged after one use, and are discarded following discharge. Most primary cells utilize electrolytes that are contained within absorbent material or a separator i. A secondary cell or battery is one that can be electrically recharged after use to their original pre-discharge condition, by passing current through the circuit in the opposite direction to the current during discharge.

In this tutorial, we will learn about one of the important components in Electrical and Electronic Systems: A Battery. We will see some basic information about a battery, take a look at different types of Batteries and also a guide on what Battery Type is suitable for your application. Whether you are an Electrical Engineer or not, you might have come across atleast a couple of different types of batteries in your life. Some of the common places where you use batteries are a wall clocks, alarms or smoke detectors which uses small disposable batteries or cars, trucks or motor cycles which uses relatively large rechargeable batteries. Batteries have become a very important source of energy in the last decade or so. Even before that, they were an integral part of our lives in powering several portable devices like transistor radios, Walkman, handheld games, cameras etc.


Batteries generally can be classified into different categories and In this article lets understand the different types of batteries and their uses.


Basic Battery Operation

Battery is the primary power source for any electronics wireless gadget, be it a smartphone, laptop, watch or remote. Can you imagine the situation without these energy sources? Today in this tutorial we discuss briefly about various types of batteries, their classification, terminology and specifications. Cell: A cell is an energy source which can deliver only DC voltage and current which are in very small quantities.

Batteries are the most common power source for basic handheld devices to large scale industrial applications. A battery can be defined as; it is a combination of one or more electrochemical cells that are capable of converting stored chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery is a device, which consists of a various voltaic cells.

A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections [1] for powering electrical devices such as flashlights , mobile phones , and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power , its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. When a battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy reactants to lower-energy products, and the free-energy difference is delivered to the external circuit as electrical energy. Primary single-use or " disposable " batteries are used once and discarded, as the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge; a common example is the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable electronic devices.

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