difference between n type and p type semiconductor pdf Thursday, May 13, 2021 7:22:53 AM

Difference Between N Type And P Type Semiconductor Pdf

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I. P-Type, N-Type Semiconductors

The P Type and N Type are two different types of semiconductors; specifically they are types of extrinsic semiconductors. Semiconductors come in two primary types: intrinsic and extrinsic. The adding of the doping agents changes the electron and hole carrier concentrations of the semiconductor at thermal equilibrium. Thermal equilibrium is the temperature at which two adjacent substances exchange no heat energy. Basically, it allows one to manipulate the semiconductor to lower its resistance.

Both p-type and n-type semiconductor is the classification of extrinsic semiconductors. The major factor that generates a difference between p-type and n-type semiconductor lies in their doping material. A p-type semiconductor material is formed by the addition of group III elements or we can say trivalent impurity to a pure intrinsic semiconductor. On the contrary, the n-type semiconductor material is formed by the addition of group V elements i. Some other factors also exist that generates major differences between the two. We will discuss these differences in detail but before proceeding towards that have a look at the contents that are to be discussed under this article. When a pure or intrinsic semiconductor is doped with group III elements of periodic table like boron, gallium, aluminium etc.

The process of purposefully adding impurities to materials is called doping; semiconductors with impurities are referred to as "doped semiconductors". In a pure intrinsic Si or Ge semiconductor, each nucleus uses its four valence electrons to form four covalent bonds with its neighbors see figure below. Since there are no excess electrons or holes In this case, the number of electrons and holes present at any given time will always be equal. An intrinsic semiconductor. Now, if one of the atoms in the semiconductor lattice is replaced by an element with three valence electrons, such as a Group 3 element like Boron B or Gallium Ga , the electron-hole balance will be changed. This impurity will only be able to contribute three valence electrons to the lattice, therefore leaving one excess hole see figure below.

Difference between P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor

There are two general categories of semiconductors: intrinsic semiconductors, which are composed of only one material, and extrinsic semiconductors, which have had other substances added to them to alter their properties. In semiconductor production, the process of creating extrinsic semiconductors by adding substances to a pure semiconductor for the purposes of modulating its electrical properties is known as doping. Semiconductors are doped to generate either a surplus or a deficiency in valence electrons. Electrons in free atoms have discrete energy values. The highest energy band contains valence electrons available for chemical reactions.


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Understanding the difference between n- and p-type semiconductors

An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped ; during manufacture of the semiconductor crystal a trace element or chemical called a doping agent has been incorporated chemically into the crystal, for the purpose of giving it different electrical properties than the pure semiconductor crystal, which is called an intrinsic semiconductor. In an extrinsic semiconductor it is these foreign dopant atoms in the crystal lattice that mainly provide the charge carriers which carry electric current through the crystal. The doping agents used are of two types, resulting in two types of extrinsic semiconductor.

The various factors like doping element, nature of doping element, the majority and minority carriers in the p-type and n-type semiconductor. The density of electrons and holes, energy level and Fermi level, the direction of movement of majority carriers, etc. The difference between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor is given below in the tabulated form. The p-type semiconductor is formed when the Trivalent impurity is added to the pure semiconductor.

Difference Between P-Type and N-Type Semiconductor

Here we will see the difference between N-type and P-type semiconductors. We also see the definition of p type and n type semiconductor. Let see,.

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1 Comments

Astrid M. 14.05.2021 at 10:20

Both p and n are the basic semiconductors arrived from the concept of doping.

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